Wednesday, November 27, 2019
How to Create the Perfect Administrative Assistant Resume If youÃ¢â¬â¢re already an administrative assistant (or you know much about the field), you know that the admin is often the person who keeps the trains running in a busy office. YouÃ¢â¬â¢re the keeper of schedules and files, as well as providing support in any number of administrative duties. Administrative assistants have a very special career path in that theyÃ¢â¬â¢re found in just about every industry. Skills you learn as an assistant in one industry can carry you through to another field altogether, which means you have tons of career flexibility. And youÃ¢â¬â¢re in good company: in 2014, there were nearly four million administrative assistant jobs in the country, per the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics. But how do you break into this field- or if youÃ¢â¬â¢re already in it, how do you start moving up to your advantage?As with most career advancement questions, the answer lies in a document we all know and love: the resume. Your resume is your foot in the door, so you need to make sure it accomplishes three things:It should represent the best of who you are, career-wise.It should show how qualified you are for the specific job opening at hand.It should be formatted in a way thatÃ¢â¬â¢s clear and easy to read.For more on the overall job search for administrative assistants (current or future), TheJobNetwork has tons of great resources on the hunt and the career path. For now, letÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ focus specifically on the resume.1.Ã What type of resume should you use?2.Ã How to format the resume3.Ã Combination resume4.Ã How to wrap up the resumeWhat type of resume should you use?The reverse-chronological resume (the kind where you start with your basic information like contact information, objective, and education, then work backwards through your job history and related skills) has been the gold standard for a long time. Now, however, with recruiters and hiring managers getting resumes in all sorts of formats, your options have gotten a little more diverse. That means you can pick a format that works best for your career and your status as a job applicant.Entry-level applicantsIf youÃ¢â¬â¢re just getting started (after graduating or starting over as a career change), you might want to consider a skills-based resume. This means that instead of launching into your work history, you have a bulleted list of professional skills. This kind of resume takes the spotlight off of your experience (which you might not have tons of yet) and puts it on the skills you bring to the new job. A skills-based resume might be the best option for you if you have any of these going for you:You have very few relevant jobs (and donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to list that table-waiting gig that got you through summers, or the internship that ended up having nothing to do with your eventual goals).Your previous jobs are so similar that the detailed bullets about each job would be virtually the same.The Muse has more on the skills-based resume format , if youÃ¢â¬â¢re still on the fence about whether this is the right format for you.If you go with the skills-based resume, itÃ¢â¬â¢s extra important to customize your resume for each job application. before applying, do your research:Which tasks/skills are specifically outlined in the job description?What background information can you find about the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s values? (company websites often have mission statements, or brief summaries of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s values and goals.)Does anyone in your network work at this company? If so, the benefits are twofold: this person could help get your resume in the right inbox, but he or she could also give you some insight into what the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s culture is like, and what qualities would be most welcomed.Once you have as much info as you can find, create your Ã¢â¬Å"skillsÃ¢â¬ showcase to reflect what the company is seeking for this particular position. For the work history that follows, you can keep the individual job hist ory bullets very basic (company name, job title, dates).Mid-career or job change applicantsEven if youÃ¢â¬â¢ve had administrative assistant job(s) before, itÃ¢â¬â¢s still a good idea to rebuild your resume from scratch for new opportunities. You want it to be the snapshot of your career at this moment, not some cut-and-paste throwback to one or two jobs ago.If you have great experience, then the traditional reverse-chronological format is totally fine. But you might also want to consider a hybrid of the two, a combination resume. In this kind of format, you lead with an overview of your most relevant skills, followed by detailed bullets walking back through your work history.How to format the resumeIf you want to use an existing template, there are lots of good sites that do the heavy lifting for you- all you need to do is cut and paste your info into the template. Some great resources for resume templates include myPerfectresume and Best-Job-Interview.If youÃ¢â¬â¢re more into DIY, and want more control over how the information is presented, you can also use these guidelines to help you build your best administrative assistant resume.For a traditional reverse-chronological resume, weÃ¢â¬â¢ve got your back. ResumeGenius also has some straightforward examples of how to format the standard resume. If youÃ¢â¬â¢d like to branch out from that established format, letÃ¢â¬â¢s look at the skills-based resume and the combination resume for someone applying for an administrative position.Ã Skills-based resumeLetÃ¢â¬â¢s say this candidate has only been out of college for about a year, but wants to emphasize the skills s/heÃ¢â¬â¢s amassed through work, internship, and volunteer experiences. The skills-based resume would be the way to go. HereÃ¢â¬â¢s an example of how that would look:Terry Robinson14 West Street, Apt. 2bHartfordrd, CT, 45454 Ã · (000) 999-9999 firstname.lastname@example.org Ã · LinkedIn: www.linked.in.com/trobinsonObjectiveAdministrative pro fessional seeking to leverage skills and experience into a senior office manager position.Skills summaryOffice management skills:Scheduling and coordinating meetings for senior managersMaking travel arrangements for team membersManaging travel and expense reports for team membersWorking independently with minimal trainingProject management skills:Spearheading the transition from a paper filing system to digitalManaging intern training programsCommunication skills:Managing correspondence for executives and senior managersCreating and distributing a company-wide newsletter to generate awareness of team accomplishmentsLiaising with a variety of clients, in-house teams, and vendorsMultilingual: english, french, spanishSocial program planningComputer skills:Expert in the microsoft office suiteCertified in quickbooksProficient in social media and corporate communicationsExperience Administrative Assistant, The Forrest Group (Hartford, CT) Ã¢â¬â May 2015 Ã¢â¬â PresentIntern, Ogilve Groves (New Haven, CT) Ã¢â¬â June 2014 Ã¢â¬â August 2014After School Program Coordinator, Gene Autry Elementary School (West Hartford, CT) Ã¢â¬â April 2012 Ã¢â¬â Present (volunteer basis)Education University of New Haven, New Haven, CT Ã¢â¬â BachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s Degree in Education, 2015. 3.7 GPA.Combination resumeNow letÃ¢â¬â¢s say, a few years later,Ã thisÃ candidateÃ is further along in his or her career as an administrative professional. S/he still wants to emphasize skills, because the job description for which heÃ¢â¬â¢s applying at educorp calls for someone with strong office management and communication skills.Terry Robinson14 West Street, Apt. 2b, Hartford, CT, 45454 Ã · (000) 999-9999 email@example.com Ã · Linkedin: www.linked.in.com/trobinsonProfessional experience The Forrest Group, Hartford, CT Ã¢â¬â Administrative Assistant,Ã February 2011 Ã¢â¬â PresentServed as primary administrative assistant and office manager for the sales gr oup, including direct secretarial support for the executive vice president.Ogilve Groves, New Haven, CT Ã¢â¬â Receptionist, May 2006 Ã¢â¬â January 2011As the front-office representative for a top advertising firm, handled correspondence and incoming phone calls, filing, training interns and junior staff, and coordinating schedules with clients and vendors.Skills summaryOffice management skills:Scheduling and coordinating meetings for senior managersMaking travel arrangements for team membersManaging travel and expense reports for team membersWorking independently with minimal trainingProject management skills:Spearheading the transition from a paper filing system to digitalManaging intern training programsCommunication skills:Managing correspondence for executives and senior managersCreating and distributing a company-wide newsletter to generate awareness of team accomplishmentsLiaising with a variety of clients, in-house teams, and vendorsMultilingual: English, French, Spani shComputer skills:Expert in the Microsoft office suiteCertified in QuickBooksProficient in social media and corporate communicationsEducation University of New Haven, New Haven, CT Ã¢â¬â AssociateÃ¢â¬â¢s degree in business, 2006Both formats are similar, but allow the applicant to use more discretion in what he or she presents. You may have been taught that resumes should have a rigid format, but itÃ¢â¬â¢s not true- your experience isnÃ¢â¬â¢t one-size-fits-all, so why should your resume be?How to wrap up the resumeRegardless of what format you choose, there are important elements to make sure youÃ¢â¬â¢ve hit in your resume:Contact informationObjective (optional)Skills/certificationsWork historyEducationHow you structure those is largely up to you- you want your strongest points to show clearly and concisely, so that the reader can identify those qualities up front. If you wait until the interview to show off your skills, for example, you might never get to that stage. The best way to figure out whatÃ¢â¬â¢s best for you is to look at lots of examples, to see what feels right for your level of experience.ItÃ¢â¬â¢s important to find a balance between showing a stable work history (or volunteer, internship, or educational history) and emphasizing the skills youÃ¢â¬â¢ve learned along the way that will make you a great candidate for this job.And as always, proofread the heck out of your resume. Have someone else read it after youÃ¢â¬â¢ve come up with a draft, so that their fresh eyes might pick up on a typo or weak point that you didnÃ¢â¬â¢t see because youÃ¢â¬â¢re so familiar with the material.Go forth and revise, and good luck, current and aspiring administrative assistants!Interested? Ã apply here
Saturday, November 23, 2019
10 Ser Conjugation Charts For Every Tense in Spanish SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips One of the hardest parts of learning a romance language- especially one like Spanish- is verb conjugation. In Spanish, the way a verb is conjugated depends on a number of factors, including the subject, the verb tense, and the purpose of the sentence itself. That means that there are actually many versions of each verb, all of which mean something slightly different. And because so much of understanding Spanish revolves around verbs, itÃ¢â¬â¢s an important (though pretty confusing) part of learning Spanish as a second language. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re taking the AP Spanish exam, ser is one of the most critical verbs that you need to know- and know how to conjugate. Unfortunately, the conjugations for ser can be pretty tricky. But weÃ¢â¬â¢re here to help. In this article, weÃ¢â¬â¢ll give you every possible verb conjugation for the Spanish verb ser, which means Ã¢â¬Å"to be.Ã¢â¬ WeÃ¢â¬â¢ll even give you a quick rundown on what ser means and when to use it! SoÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã ¡si estan listos, vamos! It's time to do like Dora and "Come on, vamanos!"Loren Javier/Flickr Every Single Ser Conjugation Chart WeÃ¢â¬â¢ve broken down every conjugation of ser by verb tense and form! Scroll down until you see the heading for the verb tense you need, then check out the corresponding chart below. Present Indicative Yo soy Nosotros somos TÃ º eres Vosotros sois Usted/El/Ella es Ustedes/Ellos/Ellas son Imperfect Indicative Yo era Nosotros Ã ©ramos TÃ º eras Vosotros erais Usted/El/Ella era Ustedes/Ellos/Ellas eran Preterite Indicative Yo fui Nosotros fuimos TÃ º fuiste Vosotros fuisteis Usted/El/Ella fue Ustedes/Ellos/Ellas fueron Future Indicative Yo serÃ © Nosotros seremos TÃ º sers Vosotros serÃ ©is Usted/El/Ella ser Ustedes/Ellos/Ellas sern Conditional Yo serÃ a Nosotros serÃ amos TÃ º serÃ as Vosotros serÃ ais Usted/El/Ella serÃ a Ustedes/Ellos/Ellas serÃ an Present Subjunctive Yo sea Nosotros seamos TÃ º seas Vosotros seis Usted/El/Ella sea Ustedes/Ellos/Ellas sean Imperative or Command Yo - - Nosotros seamos TÃ º sÃ © Vosotros sed Usted/El/Ella sea Ustedes/Ellos/Ellas sean Imperfect Subjunctive Note that there are two conjugations for the imperfect subjunctive. In Spanish, these conjugation forms can be used interchangeably! Yo fuera Nosotros fuÃ ©ramos TÃ º fueras Vosotros fuerais Usted/El/Ella fuera Ustedes/Ellos/Ellas fueran Yo fuese Nosotros fuÃ ©semos TÃ º fueses Vosotros fueseis Usted/El/Ella fuese Ustedes/Ellos/Ellas fuesen All Perfect Tenses A quick note: there are multiple perfect tenses, including the pluperfect, preterite perfect, future perfect, conditional perfect, and present perfect subjunctive, and pluperfect subjunctive. When using these forms, the construction is always as follows: Conjugation of haber + sido YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll conjugate haber in whatever form accompanies the perfect tense. For example, if youÃ¢â¬â¢re using the future perfect, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll conjugate haber in future tense! Yo sido Nosotros sido TÃ º sido Vosotros sido Usted/El/Ella sido Ustedes/Ellos/Ellas sido Dad joke of the day: "Ser" means "to be," not "two bees" Meaning and Usage of Ser As we mentioned earlier, ser means Ã¢â¬Å"to beÃ¢â¬ in Spanish. But if youÃ¢â¬â¢re studying Spanish, you know that thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a second verb that means Ã¢â¬Å"to beÃ¢â¬ as well: estar. (WeÃ¢â¬â¢ll talk about estar in another article, so you donÃ¢â¬â¢t need to worry about it now.) Additionally, ser is an irregular verb. That means it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t follow the normal patterns of conjugations that a regular verb- ike hablar (to speak) or vivir (to live)- do. Unfortunately, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s no easy tip, trick, or formula to help you nail the ser conjugation each and every time. The only way to make sure you know the ser conjugations is to memorize them. So how do you know when to use ser? In general, ser is used to talk about what something is. You can think of ser as a way to talk about a thingÃ¢â¬â¢s permanent state or a set of characteristics that donÃ¢â¬â¢t change. To show you how this works, here are examples of situations that require you to use ser: Time and Date If youÃ¢â¬â¢re talking about a specific time (on a clock) or calendar date, you should use ser. Example: Hoy es Martes.Today is Tuesday. Example: Son las dos. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s two oÃ¢â¬â¢clock. Place of Origin and Nationality Whenever youÃ¢â¬â¢re talking about someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s home country, state, or where they were born, use a ser conjugation. Example: Claudio es puertorriqueÃ ±o. Claudio is Puerto Rican. Example: El es de Alemania.He is from Germany. Occupation or Profession Use the appropriate version of ser when speaking about a personÃ¢â¬â¢s job, profession, or occupation. Example: Mi abuela era doctora en Chile. My grandmother was a doctor in Chile. Example: Adela es arquitecta.Adela is an architect. Religious or Political Affiliation Use ser when youÃ¢â¬â¢re talking about someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s religion or the political party they belong to. Example: El presidente de los estados unidos es republicano. The president of the United States is Republican. Example: Martin es un cristiano, entonces Ã ©l quiere ir a una colegio cristiano.Martin is a Christian, so he wants to go to a Christian college. What Something Is Made Of When describing what something is made of, use ser. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re discussing how something is made, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll need to use a verb like hacer (to make) instead. Example: La bicicleta es de metal. The bicycle is made of metal. Example: Los boletos son de papel.The tickets are made of paper. Possession When youÃ¢â¬â¢re talking about what something belongs to, use ser. This is how you indicate ownership! Example: Mitzi es la perra de Miguel. Mitzi is MiguelÃ¢â¬â¢s dog. Example: Esos libros fueron del seÃ ±or Villareal.Those books belonged to Mr. Villareal. Permanent Relationships of One Person to Another Use ser to indicate how people are related to one another. Example: Ella es la amiga de Laura. She is LauraÃ¢â¬â¢s friend Example: SeÃ ±ora Mariz es la mam de Juan.Mrs. Mariz is JuanÃ¢â¬â¢s mother. Where an Event Is Taking Place Use a ser conjugation to talk about the time and location of a specific event. Example: La conferencia es a las siete en la noche. The conference is at seven p.m. Example: La pasada copa del mundo fue en Rusia.The last World Cup was in Russia. Essential Characteristics of People and Things When deciding between ser and estar to talk about characteristics, use ser when youÃ¢â¬â¢re talking about permanent, unchanging, and/or essential traits of a person or item. Example: Colombia es un paÃ s grande. Colombia is a big country. Example: JosÃ © y Clara son amables.JosÃ © and Clara are friendly. Generalizations If youÃ¢â¬â¢re talking in large generalities, use a ser conjugation. Example: La prueba fue muy difÃ cil. The test was very difficult. Example: Ã ¡Es fabuloso viajar!ItÃ¢â¬â¢s fabulous to travel! What's Next? If youÃ¢â¬â¢re preparing for the AP Spanish exam, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s great! You might also look into other classes that offer AP exams in order to maximize your college credit and weighted GPA. Wondering what a good AP score is for the AP Spanish exam? HereÃ¢â¬â¢s a list of the average AP scores for every AP test! One of the tricky bits about AP tests is that itÃ¢â¬â¢s hard to know when to start studying for them. YouÃ¢â¬â¢re taking the AP class, after all! HereÃ¢â¬â¢s a handy guide to help you figure out the best time to start studying for the AP Spanish test on your own. (Spoiler alert: you do have to study for AP tests outside of the classroom, too!)
Thursday, November 21, 2019
New technologies effect on The Work Force - Essay Example In fact this contradictory attitude resides in all of us. While, at one hand, we wish for things to be easier, newer, faster i.e. changes in our immediate surroundings but on the other hand, we want to stick to the old, the familiar, to the routine -i.e. we resist change. It is because change forces us to leave our comfort zone for a zone of uncertainty and doubt. And this would mean that our self-image, self-confidence and our relationships with others and our selves would change. We might have felt very competent, confident, relaxed, self-assured in our work and surroundings, however technology might change this all for ever. We might feel less productive, creative; effective and our image of ourselves as a rock by the sea simply change into that of an insignificant pebble. Thus technology affects our psychological balance, which is the main reason behind the resistance shown by work force at work place when new technology is introduced. As technology takes place of much of human manual work, an individual's contact with the finished good is diminished. This results in feelings of alienation and un- satisfaction as individuals feel they have not accomplished much or they have not contributed significantly in the production of goods or in image creation of the company. They feel insignificant, unsuccessful and frustrated in their work places and towards technology. They suffer from feelings of resentment and frustration towards technology, which they see as their enemy who has "stolen" their jobs, their sense of pride, accomplishment and worthiness. And it doesn't end here, the fear, anxiety and apprehension is there to stay in their minds and in the ambience of the work place forever, as technology continues to advance unceasingly. ("Social Effects of Technology") This has been well explained by Kurt Lewin in his "change theory", which was further elaborated by Edgar Schein. It is also known as the "unfreezing-change-refreeze" theory, which explains why people reject new technology, or learning in a workplace, how companies should be prepared for this and how they should manage the whole change process so that change finally becomes the part of the system completely acceptable to everyone. (Wirth, 2004) The first stage is known as the "unfreezing" stage where people need to be motivated for change. This explains why people initially resist change and how they can be prepared for the change, nonetheless. He believed that the behavior pattern of human beings is based on what they have learned from past observations and from their surroundings or culture. Any change, for example technological change, means that either new element are added into these past or existing surroundings or some of the elements to removed from them forever. He, further, argued that people would only accept change on three conditions. The first situation is where there already exists dissatisfaction and resentment towards present conditions. This means that individuals are unable to derive their sense of pr
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Fall of late Qing dynasty- challenges from the West - Essay Example These activities drew European countries that were exceedingly eager to connect with the wealthy China that ruled the continent and the seas. However, several factors arose in the 1800s that made the dynasty lose its global economic leadership. The country was hit by social turmoil, economic fracturing, and European imperialism. In this paper, I will outline the factors that made the Qing Empire collapse. Supremacy of the Qing Dynasty Qing dynasty was one of the greatest empires during the early-modern period. It existed at the same period with other empires such as Mugal Empire, ottoman, Austria-Hungary, and Russian empire (Ma, 30). The Qing Empire was the first to fall among the superior empires at the time. The empire was beset by a struggle between westerners and traditionalists during the nineteenth century. The modernizing party introduced nationalism in china as it did in Russia and Turkey. The party argued that imperialism was obsolete and obstructed the national sensibility of the majorities. The concept of nationalism had been drawn from the historical output, legal structure, and the educational system. Han Chinese, Mongols, Manchus, and Tibetans drew upon the imperial legacy to establish clear ideas of their language, religions, and aristocratic traditions (Ma, 31). This strengthened the nationalist idealism that championed for equal representation of the majority in the dynasty. This opened the avenue for encroachment by western countries. Imperial encroachment and nationalistic movements were significant in weakening the unity of the empire even before the Chinese revolt broke out in October 1911 (Ma, 35). The Qing Empire had suffered a dramatic loss of some of its territory to imperial powers. One of the losses was the Qing northern pacific coast that ceded to Russia through a treaty in 1860. The region is currently known as the Russian maritime province. Russia ceased another part of the Qing Empire in 1871 when it took over East Turkestan. Tibe t followed suit when it was invaded by Britain in 1904. Britain and Tibet signed a short lived treaty and Qing paid indemnity to Britain in 1906. This brought an international consensus that forbade Britain and Tibet from signing treaties directly. However, Britain continues with their support for Tibet nationalists, which led to the 1906 Tibet independence. Mongolia followed suit and became independent in 1921 putting an end to the Outer Mongolia region of the Qing Empire. ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s civil war in the nineteenth century is not sufficiently treated as modern warfare compared to the American civil war or the Indian rebellion of 1857 (Ma, 40). The Taiping war of 1850-1864 was the bloodiest conflict during the revolution and remains to be the bloodiest conflict in history. The war caused fatalities of between 25 to 40 million people and the majorities were civilians. There were months of siege war and starvation was used as a weapon on both sides. The Taiping created a base and a bu reaucratic government at Nanjing, an area that experienced the longest siege. Europe and America were attracted to the conflict due to the proclaimed Christianity by Taiping. However, the Qing Empire was economically stable, and western powers opted to support them against Taiping by providing military support. Contribution of foreign Nations Western powers sent troops and mercenaries to Qing Empire to suppress the Taiping. By 1860, several British
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Summary of Dr. Faustus Essay ?Christopher Marlowe was an older contemporary of William Shakespeare. The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus is his best known work. Christopher Marlowe based his play Doctor Faustus on stories about a scholar and magician, Johann Faust, who allegedly sold his soul to the devil to gain magical powers. Born in 1488, the original Faust wandered through his German homeland until his death in 1541. In 1587, the first story about his life appeared in Germany. What Marlowe creates out of the story is a Medieval morality- play with a late Renaissance temper. In Doctor Faustus, Marlowe has made good use of a conventional Christian doctrine. Faustus strives against human limitation to the point of selling his soul. He is not only a seeker for power but also a knower and a desirer to know. The play begins with Dr. Faustus shown in his study, where he is deciding upon which field to specialise in- Analytics or Logic. Dissatisfied with his human status, he would like to have magical powers of making men live eternally and bringing back the dead to life. He rejects divine learning also, because it is based on a recognition of manÃ¢â¬â¢s morality and fallibility. For most of the play, the chorus sets the motion of the drama. The first Act establishes the unscholarly attitude of Faustus and also the base for his tragedy- a poor bargain eventually made with the devil that will leave him devastated in the end. The subplot of Wagner, the scholars and the clown dramatises FaustusÃ¢â¬â¢ predicament in very crude terms and have certain comical elements in it. Act 2 outlines the tragedy with greater depth. FaustusÃ¢â¬â¢s rebellion against human nature is quite desperate, because it loses more than it gains. But Faustus is Ã¢â¬Å"resolvedÃ¢â¬ and shall Ã¢â¬Å"never repentÃ¢â¬ . He finally signs the pact with the devil, giving away his soul in return for the services of limitless knowledge. Acts 3 and 4 are basically about the kind of life Faustus is now leading with the help of Mephistophilis and other minions of the devil. Faustus seeks and Mephistophilis plans, rather a series of comic indulgences mainly to distract the formerÃ¢â¬â¢s mind from the tormenting religious awareness. The final Act brings a climatic end of Faustus. The 24 years of the agreement comes to an end and with that, the sad realisation that all knowledge, wealth and power of the world were futile in comparison to having an everlasting place in heaven. The keynote of the final monologue of Faustus, before the devil takes him, is a feeling of pity and terror which all great tragedies are expected to arouse. Marlowe had a twofold aim in the play. He would write a morality play and hence the substantial stasis can be highlighted along with the comedy and the undramaticality of the play associated with the morality tradition. J. P. Brockbank observes, that the play serves a purpose for the audience- Ã¢â¬Å"In fear we acquiesce in the littleness and powerlessness of man, and in pity we share his sufferings and endorse his protest. Ã¢â¬
Friday, November 15, 2019
Displacement Reaction The aim of my experiment is to find out what happens to the heat of the zinc and copper sulphate solution when one of the variables is changed. Key variables: Ã § amount of copper sulphate solution Ã § amount of zinc I am going to investigate what happens to the temperature of the zinc and copper sulphate solution as the amount of zinc is increased. The equation to show this reaction is: Zn + CuSO4 Ã ® ZnSO4 + Cu The enthalpy change for the reaction is: Ã ²H = -217kJ mole Ã ¹ This means that if 1 mole of solution is used of each substance, the heat given off will be 217,000 Joules. Apparatus: Ã § 1 test tube Ã § 20ml of copper sulphate solution for each experiment Ã § Zinc Ã § Rubber bung Ã § Thermometer Prediction: I think that as the amount of zinc is increased, the temperature of the solution will also increase. I have used the following formula to predict some results of this experiment. q = Q mc where q = temperature rise, Q = quantity of heat, m = mass of solution (20g) and c = the specific heat capacity of water which = 4.18Jg Ã ¹K Ã ¹. 65g Zinc Ã ® 217000 joules 1g Zinc Ã ® 217000 = 3338 joules 65 Therefore for 1g of zinc: 3338 =39Ã °c rise 20x4.18 I can now use this formula proportionately to predict results for my investigation. For 0.3g of zinc: 0.3 x 39 = 12Ã °c rise For 0.5g of zinc: 0.5 x 39 = 19.5Ã °c rise For 0.7g of zinc: 0.7 x 39 = 27.3Ã °c rise For 0.9g of zinc: 0.9 x 39 = 35.1Ã °c rise I have used this information in order to predict the results of the temperature rise I expect to see as the amount of zinc is increased. I have also used this information to plan my experiment.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Brad Ward English 152 Dr. Reiter 10/13/2011 The Argument on Obesity being a Disease Roughly, in the United States, there are 60 million people with the problem of obesity. Uniquely, this disease affects women in the United States more than men. Obesity is a problem because both men and women of all ages are exposed to a large amount of food in their everyday lives. He or she should lose weight because Obesity it can bring on a lot of health issues. This issue is a Ã¢â¬Å"bigÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ problem in the U.S and that issue is why some people say that they believe obesity is a disease and why another set of people that think a person chooses to live the lifestyle of obesity. One reason some people have problems with obesity is they live very convenient lives. Ã¢â¬Å"Does the family have clearly stated rules and are punishments logical consequences for rules that are broken (Kelly D. Brownell & John P. Foreyt)? Ã¢â¬ Many people donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to exercise and do not eat healthily at all.Most people take the easy way by taking elevators instead of climbing the stairs, or if they are hungry they go to a fast food restaurant instead of preparing a low fat meal at home. For example, in my family if nobody wants to cook, we usually go out and pick up something to eat, usually high calorie fast food. People today can also become so busy they donÃ¢â¬â¢t even attempt to exercise or eat health foods. The reason I know this is because I am busy almost every day. With school work, my job, and family duties I find little time for exercise or food preparation.Eating healthily and staying fit is a lifestyle that everyone needs to switch over to so they can have more energy and also live longer. Most of the time it is not peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s choices that make them obese; it is either hereditary or a slow body metabolism. Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢Obesity has become a highly contentious issue in part because the United States not only has one of the highest obesity rates in the world b ut has also led the industrial transformation of society to produce the Ã¢â¬Ëtoxic environmentÃ¢â¬â¢ now accepted by most governments as the problemÃ¢â¬ (WPT James S125). Obesity is so toxic that octors are finding obesity is liked with depression. Ã¢â¬ We found that a self reported doctor diagnosis of depression was modestly associated with obesity, as well as significant genetic components to depression and obesity in female twins(Afari, Niloofar). Ã¢â¬ Sometimes a certain gene in peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s bodies can cause them to be obese. For example, most of my family is big boned people. Some people have hypothyroidism or an underactive thyroid. This condition can make a person sluggish and out of energy so they will not be able to exercise or eat healthily.With obesity, many restrictions follow, for example wearing certain sized clothing, or assigned particular seat on a bus, plane, or amusement park ride. If a person is obese they usually have a hard time to find clothes. For instance, most of time my dad goes to Shreveport to the Big & Tall men store. This is where he buys his shirts and pants at cheap price. This group of people feels that being obese is a lifestyle and that too much cost goes into providing the coverage for obesity.But yet, people in the middle school system give Body /Mass index exams. Ã¢â¬Å"Doctors use the BMI mainly to categorize patients, into Ã¢â¬ËoverweightÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËobeseÃ¢â¬â¢, using either data from reference populations or drawing upon the U-shaped association between BMI and both, morbidity and mortality (Muller, M. J. ). Ã¢â¬ So, why does the government not help do something for obesity? I believe that government is holding out on us and we canÃ¢â¬â¢t do anything about it unless we elect people that can fight on our behalf.This is the one problem that gets to me because the government has the guts to sent all are jobs overseas but they are so skeptical about helping us as American to pay to Ã¢â¬Å"kno ckoutÃ¢â¬ this obesity propbelm. Obesity can affect a lot of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s health by causing diabetes, sleep disorders, heart complications, and breathing problems. For instance, a man named Joe who appeared on the TV show The Biggest Looser started the program weighing at 450 pounds and having to take medication for his health problems.He stayed on the show for three weeks and he lost a whopping 215 pounds. Since he lost all of that weight he did have to take the medication anymore. If people worked on having the will power to exercise and eat healthily, they could have more energy and not feel exhausted. I know it is not always peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s fault for being obese but that does not mean they have to stay fat for the rest of their lives. All we need to is keep positive and Believe we can fight the better life.If a person was to take their time and try it out they might get good results. Work cited (James, W. P. T. ). Ã¢â¬Å"WHO recognition of the global obesity epidemic. Ã¢â ¬ International Journal of Obesity 7 (2008): S125 (Kelly D. Brownell and John P. Foreyt). Ã¢â¬Å"Handbook of Eating DisorderÃ¢â¬ Basic Books, Inc. 513 (1986): 432 (Afari, Niloofar). Ã¢â¬ Depression & Anxiety (1091-4269); Sep2010, Vol. 27 Issue 9, p799-806, 8p, 1 Diagram, 4 Charts (Muller, M. J. ). Ã¢â¬Å"Obesity Reviews; Aug2010, Vol. 11 Issue 8, p612-618, 7p, 2 Graphs
Sunday, November 10, 2019
In his book, People Care, Thom Dick shows us that while it is imperative to know and perform all the medical procedures well, it is also important to treat patients with kindness and respect. He points out that most people donÃ¢â¬â¢t remember much about medical procedures performed, but they do remember how they were treated. Also, he demonstrates that how patients are treated plays a big role in whether or not they decide to pursue malpractice litigation against healthcare providers. If patients are handled with gentleness and respect, they are more likely to forgive mistakes. He begins his book by giving us three major mistakes that the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) has made since its founding. The first mistake was to support hiring people that were inclined to hate their jobs. These people were thrill seekers and just wanted to be heroes. They only cared primarily about themselves and not enough about the patient. In order to enjoy and do well in the EMS profession, Emergency Medical Technicians (EMTs) need to naturally like people and have a love for helping them. The second mistake was that the EMTs were taught to expect the wrong things. They were led to believe that every call would be exciting. In reality, most calls are routine and are not exciting at all. The last mistake was that many EMS administrators treated their workers with disrespect. They applied manufacturing measures to EMS quality which made the EMTs feel less valuable. Thom Dick wants us to remember that EMS is not manufacturing; it is the most important people business ever. Next, Mr. Dick stresses that the EMTÃ¢â¬â¢s personal safety always comes first. He believes that they need to develop safety habits if they are to stay alive and healthy. One of the gifts that EMS gives back is situational awareness. EMTs will be put into many dangerous situations and will need situational awareness in order to stay out of harmÃ¢â¬â¢s way. Mr. Dick also believes that another way to stay safe is to never drive the ambulance too fast or in any other irresponsible way. Thom Dick emphasizes the need to respect others no matter how strange or different they may seem to us. EMTs meet a wide variety of people out in the field and must learn to accept them as they are. It is not an EMTÃ¢â¬â¢s job to judge other peoplesÃ¢â¬â¢ personalities. Their job is to provide the best care that they are able to give. Mr. Dick feels that it is important to take the time to understand how patients are feeling. Many of the people that EMTs will meet are scared and need someone to help them feel better. One of the most important things an EMT can do for them is to simply smile. The smile needs to be genuine or the patient will feel like it is all an act and the EMT doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t really care. He next expresses the need to develop professional etiquette toward everyone that they meet. Respect and kindness should be shown to every person that EMTs come upon in the field. This includes other medical professionals, first responders, other drivers, co-workers, and patients. EMTs should listen to them and do all they can to cooperate. This will be easiest if they naturally like people and have no problem respecting others. Additionally, Mr. Dick feels that professional etiquette includes maintaining a professional appearance. If EMTs are poorly groomed or go around with an unkempt uniform, it reflects badly on themselves, their colleagues, and their profession. In Mr. DickÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion, most of the so called Ã¢â¬Å"system abusersÃ¢â¬ are simply people who are overwhelmed in life or just lonely. They become desperate for someone to talk to and they know EMTs will always respond and most likely listen to them. They deserve sympathy however and not distain. Many of these people are homeless, having no one in their lives to talk to or listen to them. The author wants us to remember that, with a couple of bad breaks, we could end up homeless too and that these people should be treated with the same level of respect as everyone else. According to Mr. Dick, another group that deserves respect is the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s family members. If a patient is in crisis, the family is most likely in crisis as well. They can be very helpful in such things as giving the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s medical history, medications, and other useful information to an EMT. The family can also become formidable adversaries if they feel that the patient is being mistreated. EMTs should always listen to them and show that they really do care about their family member. Furthermore, Mr. Dick believes that being able to give comfort to the family is a required skill for all healthcare providers to have. He further states that the elderly are probably the biggest group of people that EMTs will treat in their careers. The author gives several examples in his book of how the elderly can be different from other patients and how certain things can affect them more. Mr. Dick also wants EMTs to understand how the elderly feel about the current condition of their lives. They have gone from being independent in all areas in their lives to needing elp getting dressed and cleaning themselves. They are people just like everyone else and deserve to be treated as such. Mr. Dick next warns us that EMTs will come in contact with many violent people and that they need to do all they can to stay out of danger. When EMTs come upon these people, they must do their best to keep control of their emotions and not retaliate in any way. Violent patients should still be treated with respect and still need to be cared for. Additionally, Mr. Dick informs us that EMTs may be put in a situation where they will have to Ã¢â¬Å"take-downÃ¢â¬ and restrain the patient. He believes that if they must do this, proper restraints should be used and they should still listen to the patient. If the patient starts to complain of breathing difficulty, the EMT must do what he can to help them. Thom Dick and his co-authors obviously put a lot of thought into writing this book. It is full of practical ways to treat our patients with respect and how to stay safe while in the field. I strongly believe that all EMS professionals and students should read this book to gain understanding of some of the challenges and dangers they will face in this critical and demanding profession.
Friday, November 8, 2019
The dark tourism Essays The dark tourism Essay The dark tourism Essay Presentation of the Problem Tourism covers legion signifiers of travel and a wide scope of finishs. Dark Tourism describes a niche type of touristry which covers the trial of topographic points where calamities or historically notable deceases have occurred of establishments covering with the heritage of humanity ( Tarlow, 2005 ) . Particularly in the last decennaries, dark touristry has become apparently more popular and has received more attending ( Stone, 2009 ) . Foley and Lennon ( 1999 ) province that touristry associated with sites of decease is registering a rapid growing. Smith ( 1996 ) found in her research on war and touristry that the memorabilia of warfare and allied merchandises likely forms the largest individual class of tourer attractive forces in the universe, despite the calamities and dissuasive incidents which have happened at that place. One of the earliest illustrations of dark tourer sites in the beginning of the nineteenth century was a gaol in the United States of America, which receive d public involvement because of its architectural inventions and fresh patterns ( Stone, 2009 ) . Meanwhile, sing sites of decease and catastrophe has developed into a worldwide phenomenon. But the demand for dark touristry musca volitanss is various. Beside the affair of decease, involvement in civilization, history or merely the desire for amusement are possible grounds why 1000000s of people are sing topographic points of dark touristry ( Stone, 2006 ) . Despite an increasing sum of surveies on the subject ( Seaton, 1996 ; Lennon and Foley, 2000 ; Sharpley and Stone, 2009 ) there is still a deficiency of understanding what really motivates worlds to see sites of dark touristry and to prosecute themselves with the subjects of decease, catastrophe and race murder. Due to the fact that dark touristry is a turning signifier of touristry, it is necessary to understand why people are motivated to see topographic points where other people have suffered. Purposes of the Bachelor Thesis The intent of this survey is to place the motivations of visitants sing former battlegrounds where historically of import conflicts have been fought. This survey will give a better, theoretically informed apprehension of tourer motive and its function in the determination devising procedure. The undermentioned inquiries will be examined in respects to this subject: Which push factors play a function in visitors? motive to battlefields? Which pull factors play a function in visitors? motive? What function do peculiarly degree of instruction, involvement in history, media and personal connexion drama in visitors? motive? Which other visitant motivations influence the determination to see battlegrounds? Methodology Structure of the Thesis This Bachelor Thesis is divided into a theoretical and an empirical portion. The end of the theoretical portion is to supply and explicate the theories, footings and definitions used in this survey to organize a thorough literature reappraisal to reexamine literature for planing the research and construing the findings. Dark Tourism Definition of Dark Tourism Lennon and Foley described the term dark touristry as the phenomenon which encompasses the presentation and ingestion ( by visitants ) of existent and commodified decease and catastrophe sites ( 1996:198 ) . An illustration of really early signifiers of dark touristry would be the gladiatorial games of the Roman country or public executings in mediaeval age ( Stone, 2009 ) . Boorstin ( 1964, in Stone 2009 ) states that the first organized circuit in England in 1838 was a trip by train to witness the hanging of two liquidators. Dark touristry sites and attractive forces are non merely going more and more popular ( Sharpley, 2005 ) but besides vary tremendously in their presentation of decease. They reach from jesting houses of horror, over decease sites of celebrated people to topographic points of mass slaying like the Holocaust decease cantonments. Seaton ( 1996 ) cites a figure of attractive forces, including the battleground of Waterloo and the inhumed metropolis of Pompeii ; the latter is said to be the greatest and most celebrated thanatoptic travel finish of the Romantic period ( Seaton, 1996 ) . In contrast to Stone, Seaton prefers utilizing the definition thanatourism alternatively of dark touristry. He describes thanatourism as being the travel to a location entirely, or partly, motivated by the desire for existent or symbolic brushs with decease, peculiarly, but non entirely, violent decease, which may, to a varying grade be activated by the person-specific characteristics of those whose deceases are its focal objects ( 1996:240 ) . This would intend that people, going to dark sites, are active traveling at that place in order to see the aura of such topographic points. In add-on to this, he believes that thanatourism is defined by the consumer s motivations and that single traveller motive do play a function in this sort of touristry. Another definition synced with dark touristry is the term black musca volitans , which are commercial developments of grave sites and sites in which famous persons or big Numberss of peoples have met with sudden and violent deceases ( Rojek, 1993:136 ) . Rojek shows three different illustrations of Black Spots the day of remembrance of John Fitzgerald Kennedy s slaying in Dallas, Texas, the one-year candle flame vigil in memory of Elvis Presley and the one-year pilgrims journey to the portion of the Californian main road where James Dean died in a auto clang. Both the looks dark touristry and thanatourism will be used in this research, because they have the same significance, but are otherwise interpreted. Thanatourism is based on the motivational facet, while dark touristry is attraction severally location based. In contrast, black musca volitanss are a parts of the dark touristry spectrum and instead describe topographic points of sudden and violent decease. In this instance, graveyards would non be portion of black topographic point sites. Seatons reading will be used in the undermentioned survey. As I am look intoing motivations of people sing dark tourer sites, I adopt the definition of Seaton because it is more elaborate and better apprehensible than the definitions of Rojek, Lennon and Foley. Furthermore the definition fits better as motivational position. Classification of dark touristry Dark touristry is, in its assorted signifiers, multi-faceted, multi tiered and exists in a assortment of societal, cultural, geographical and political contexts ( Stone, 2009 ) . A full classification of all death-related attractive forces is really complex and hard. Furthermore, in contrast to Foley and Lennon, Seaton ( 2006 ) states that thanatourism works on coherency between two elements: foremost, if the traveller has merely one or more motivations to see a topographic point of decease, and secondly, the extend to which the involvement in decease is person-centered or scale-of-death centered. Mentioning to Figure 1, it can be concluded that people sing sites of decease, for illustration a battleground or a prison where a relation has died or has suffered, have a weak thanatourism component in their motive. The involvement in decease is person-centered because this is the intent of visit in the first case. In contrast, people who are sing the same sights but have no relations or friends which might hold suffered at that place, show a strong thanatourism component. They are interested in decease itself and are fascinated by those sights. Dark touristry supply and demand It is obvious that people have long been attracted to topographic points of decease and catastrophe. In footings of supply, there has been a rapid growing in the proviso of such attractive forces or experiences ; so, there appears to be an increasing figure of people acute to gain from topographic points of decease as tourer attractive forces, such as a husbandman in Pennsylvania who offered a circuit of the clang site of the United Airlines Flight 93 one of the 9/11 aircraft ( Bly, 2003 ) . Marcel ( 2004 ) recognised that there is a immense scope and diverseness of dark touristry supply when she examined whether decease makes a vacation , and denoted that dark touristry is a portion of the touristry phenomenon and called it soiled small secret . In order to look into the phenomenon of consumer demand of dark tourer sites, it is necessary to analyze the subject both from the supply and demand position. As Seaton ( 1996 ) believes, dark touristry is basically a behavioural phenomenon, defined by tourer motivations as opposed to peculiar features of a site or attractive force . To build any model, both demand and supply demands to be taken into consideration. For Foley and Lennon, dark touristry is a temporally, fundamentally western phenomenon based upon non-purposeful visits due to serendipity, the path of circuit companies or the simply funny who happen to be in the locality ( 2000:23 ) . Therewith, in the two research worker s sentiment, dark touristry demand is created accidentally and is now portion of circuit companies plans, with the aim to do money by acquiring tourers to a dark country which is located near to the paths. In this instance, the research workers strongly declare that dark touristry is supply-driven. Due to the inquiry whether people coincidently come across dark tourer sites, as Foley and Lennon ( 2000 ) believe, this subject has to be considered critically. It has to be mentioned that demand and supply are dynamic and ever altering. For illustration, London Dungeon has ever exposed horrifying and gory sculptures. These exhibits were the chief ground why people came to see this topographic point. If the direction would make up ones mind to take the electric chair, the demand would diminish quickly ( Sharpley, 2009 ) . It is still ill-defined whether thanatourism is still acquiring more and more popular because of the increasing sum and diverseness of attractive forces, or because of the turning involvement of people looking for the macabre and terrorization ( West, 2004 ) . Harmonizing to Sharpley ( 2009 ) , there exists a continuum of intent of supply of dark touristry sites or experiences. He believes that there are tourer attractive forces which have become dark tourer sites by accident and topographic points which are straight intended to do net income. Figure 2 shows the four shades of touristry, making from pale to black touristry. Harmonizing to Sharpley ( 2009 ) , the four sunglassess of dark touristry are devided into four classs. Tourists with a low involvement in in decease and who are sing sites which are unintended to be tourist attractive forces are pale tourers . Its oposite would summarize people with a high captivation with decease and sing dark tourer sites on intent. This sort of dark touristry is referred as the darkest touristry possible . Concerning supply and demand, tourers with captivation with decease but sing unintendet dark touristry sites are demanding gray touristry. Grey touristry supply would define sites which are deliberately established to work decease, pulling visitant with merely a minor involvement in decease. Battlefield touristry Battlefield touristry refers to the trial to sites associated with warfare. These include locations like battlegrounds, commemorations or military Gravess every bit good as museums and other constructions that commemorate wars, conflicts and associated events or atrociousnesss ( Seaton, 1999 ) . Topographic points like these have attracted tourers from all over the universe for more than thousand old ages. Alexander the Great was one of the first known battleground tourers, when he visited the Tomb of Achilles and ancient Troy during his invasion of Asia ( Wilcken, 1967 ) . Battlefield touristry increased significantly during the last century, which could be ascribed to the turning figure of military struggles since the early 1900s and more by and large, the go oning growing of touristry ( Sharpley, 2009 ) . Particularly the clip after the First World War represented a turning point in the history of battlefield touristry. Visits to battlefield sites like Waterloo, Napoleon Bonaparte s last conflict near Brussels in 1815, started to go more and more popular ( Lloyd, 1998 ) . The on-going hunt by the touristry industry for new attractive forces has created a really relevant touristry phenomenon around battlefield touristry ( Ryan, 2007 ) . The paradox of a site of conflict or war is that visitants are able to travel about freely on a one time insecure topographic point where many people have lost their lives. Sing the macabre and abhorrent ambiance which is radiated by topographic point of war, it is singular that some tourers are accepting a long journey in order to acquire impressed by a site of war, express gladfulness or even see unhappiness. Battlefield Tours For a battlefield circuit visitant, a battleground circuit has the intent of understanding what happened and why ( Sharpley, 2006 ) . Therefore it can be concluded that tourers belonging to this signifier of trial are primary interested in history and the really inside informations of the conflict. Even images, closest surveies and primary beginnings can non depict the ambiance of a topographic point where battles have taken topographic point. For illustration, it is necessary to stand at the beach of Ford Island, Hawaii, to understand how the feeling must hold been when the Nipponese dramatic force, dwelling of 400 military planes, attacked the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor on December 7 in 1941. With a small spot of imaginativeness, the visitant can see through the eyes of the soldier, although the site may hold changed over the old ages. To travel into more item and to calculate out why tourers visit battlegrounds, it is of import to separate between the types of trial. In order to categorize the study in Chapter , classs of trials have been pointed out and confronted in braces: Are the tourers sing battlegrounds as a portion of an organized circuit or are they single visitants? Do visitants hold a weak or a strong thanatoursim component in their motive? Did people come to battelfield sites voluntarily ( Leisure visitants ) or have they been invited as portion of a company outing or an advanced preparation class ( Business/Educational visitants ) ? Pilgrimage Battlefield pilgrims journeies can be defined as the traveling for recollection with the focal point on the religious and emotional experience of sing Gravess and commemorations ( Stone, 2009:194 ) . Beside veterans, immediate household members may besides see a battleground for recollection. For illustration, when decease was the ground why a twosome s matrimony ended, it can be really of import for the personal healing procedure of the widow to see the battleground where her hubby died or the grave where he is buried. In these instances once more, a weak thanatoursim component is perceptible beacause the dead are know and the involvement in decease is person-centred. But non merely immediate relations have a religious relationship to household members who died in war. Besides kids, whose gramps lost his life in a conflict, can demo their pride of holding a great warrior. Furthermore, going together in a group to a battleground can be major societal event, such as an day of remembrance. A pilgrims journey can besides promote conversations between coevalss which might non go on anyplace else. Types of Battlefield visitants Leisure visitants Harmonizing to a study commissioned by the Royal British Legion in 2006 ( based upon a sample of 1000 respondents across the United Kingdom ) leisure visitants are the bulk of modern tourers at battlegrounds ( Stone, 2009 ) . These visitants show a strong involvement in history, particularly military history. This popular involvement arose from a captivation with the soldier and the conflict, due to the fact that the proportion of the population who is functioning in the armed forces is decreasing ( Holmes, 2006 ) . Another ground for the increasing involvement in soldiers could be popular movies like Black Basterds by Quentin Tarantino, USA 2009. Depending if leisure visitants travel to battlefield sites on their ain or as portion of Tourss, they can either demo a high involvement ( or thanaourism component ) in decease and catastrophe or merely see them as side trips of the whole circuit being unconcerned with dark touristry. Educational Visits and Visits by the Military Visits to battlegrounds, if gettable, are undertaken by schools and other educational constitutions. An chance is given to immature people and pupils to understand the background and context of subjects learned at school or university. Educational visits to battlegrounds differ from general leisure visits in points of larning aims and the opportunity to supply support for certain parts of the national course of study ( Sharpley, 2006 ) . Furthermore, instructors with personal involvements in military history are able to portion their enthusiasm and can arouse some ideas about morality in their pupil s heads, which is besides an of import portion of instruction. Members of the Armed Forces, who view the battleground as portion of the hereafter, besides belong to the class of educational visitants. The British Armed Forces use battlegrounds for tactical preparation and survey ( Ryan, 2007 ) , leading lessons and be aftering how modern military personnels would run on the same land. Non-military administrations in the United Kingdom, like Corporate Battlefields and Business Battlefields are besides utilizing battlegrounds for leading or direction development plans. Peoples take parting in such events are thought to larn from the lessons in history and construct effectual taking squads to increase concern public presentation. Often, members of such jaunt are forced to take part and can non afford to worsen in order to maintain their occupations. Therefore it can be concluded that, educational visits, are non voluntarily by the bulk. Veterans Even if this is merely a little portion of battlefield tour visitants, some veterans still have the desire to see one time more the topographic point where they have fought, to re-experience the topographic point, possibly for the last clip in their lives. Some of them make themselves available for Tourss to narrate their narratives to other visitants, who get the opportunity to acquire a better and really reliable presentation of the site. Others merely desire to understand what happened or the significance of their ain function when they fought a war ( Stone, 2009 ) . It can be assumed that, for these sort of visitants and harmonizing to Seatons ( 1996 ) Thanatoursim continuum, there is no specific involvement in decease and desaster observable. Tourist Motivation Tourist motive can be defined as the planetary integration web of biological and cultural forces which gives value and way to go picks, behaviour and experience ( Pearce, Morrison A ; Rutledge, 1998 ) Motivation has ever been an of import factor of leisure and touristry survey and a basic subject in touristry research ( Crompton, 1979 ; Veal, 1997 ) . Harmonizing to Wahab ( 1975 ) , it is cardinal that, for touristry surveies and development, the country of travel motive is taken into consideration. This means that touristry providers can profit from understanding what travellers want in order to foretell future travel forms and accommodate the offer. Furthermore, certain tourer types can be selected as mark sections for travel and tourer selling ( Smith, 1996 ) Harmonizing to Pearce ( 2007:50 ) , motive could besides be the drive force behind all actions . Peoples do things because they have a figure of motivations which can differ tremendously from each other. Some visitants t ravel to Paris for seeing the Eiffel Tower because of its tallness and the beautiful position over the metropolis, others go to the same metropolis for shopping and the good nutrient. The finish is the same, but different motivations brought persons at that place and different or even same activities could be based on different motivations. Seaton ( 1997 ) believes that motive is generated by an internal feeling, besides called an person s demand , which drives people to accomplish certain ends. When all ends have been reached, the demand reduces and the single returns to the initial point until new motivations, which are coming up shortly after the satisfaction of the last 1s, have to be met. Tourists can be easy classified in footings of demographics, types of travel, economic well being and many other factors, but it is hard to place why tourers do what they do ( Woodside and Martin, 2008 ) . In contrast to the intent of travel which can be, for illustration, classified in concern or leisure , the private demands and wants are really hard to mensurate, as they vary between persons. There is a broad scope of human wants and demands and besides troubles in mensurating them which poses jobs in doing theories about travel motive. To understand how people form their determinations, the determination doing procedure will be briefly touched and besides a better account of human demands, mentioning to Maslow s Hierarchy of demands, has to be provided. Decision Making Procedure Decision devising can be summarised as the procedure of extinguishing or cut downing uncertainty about any options to do an expedient pick from among them ( Solomon, 2006 ) . About all determinations involve a certain sum of hazards because there can neer, or seldom, be complete cognition about all options. Furthermore at that place has to be a grade of uncertainity ; otherwise, if non, people would ever take the right manner and would neer make any errors in their lives. In order to find an ideal determination, a perfect determination environment has to be the footing including all the information of all options. Restrictions like clip and attempt interfere in doing ideal determination. For illustration, cipher would pass 2 hours driving about in the metropolis waiting for the closest parking batch to the supermarket to acquire vacant. The decision-making procedure is influenced by internal and external variables. Attitudes, beliefs, purposes and motive belong to the psychological portion. Variables like clip, monetary value and pull factors are finishing the external or nonpsychological portion. These factors are predetermined, for illustration the good conditions in the Caribbean or the clip for traveling at that place because of limited vacations. The determination doing procedure involves five phases: Maslow s Hierarchy of demands Maslow is said to be one of the laminitiss of humanistic psychological science, a school of psychological science concerned with the human context for the development of psychological theory ( Hoffman, 1999 ) . In Motivation and Personality, foremost published in 1954, Maslow describes his hierarchy of demands and its relation to motive in general. In his sentiment, all human demands can be organised in a pyramid, dwelling of five phases: physiological demands on the underside and self-actualisation on the top. In between, safety demands, belongingness or credence and esteem demands have to be satisfied before making the highest degree. An single usually tries to fulfill the physiological demands fist, before higher-leveled demands are emerging. Harmonizing to Maslow, all human existences follow this order, with little fluctuations. Sometimes higher degrees of demands can rule, although some basic demands have non been satisfied to the full ( Maslow, 1970 ) . Figure shows Maslow s 5 phases of demands in a pyramid. Adapted from Chaman, 2001-4 Based on this information, the theory has to be applied on tourer motive. Pearce ( 1993 ) , for illustration, has analysed 400 travel experiences of travellers in Europe, Canada, Australia and the USA. One positive and one negative experience had to be written down by the 200 respondents. In conformity to the pyramid of demands, the information was analysed and coded into five classs. For positive experiences, the undermentioned consequence for each demand satisfied could me indicated: To summarize these findings, Pearce ( 1993 ) states that travel motives show features of an approach-avoidance paradigm ( Woodside, 2008 ) . This means that, for travellers, positive experiences contribute to the higher-leveled phases, while negative experiences instead contribute to the medium leveled phases. Further, Pearce ( 1993 ) believes that vacation finishs attract people because tourers see a opportunity in carry throughing personal growing and love demands. Push and Pull Factors Harmonizing to Dann ( 1981 ) , tourers are motivated by a push or draw to a finish in order to fulfill demands. He defines push and pull factors in touristry as forces which drive people to travel off from a topographic point ( push ) and factors which draw them to new locations ( pull ) . For illustration, person leaves his/her metropolis of birth because of an increasing offense rate and low quality of life ( push ) and moves to another metropolis with a good substructure and where his/her household lives ( pull ) . Crompton ( 1979 ) states that the travel industry focuses more on pull factors and that there is a deficiency for push factors. Pull factors can be, in contrast to force factors, much better influenced because they are seldom internal. Therefore, travel bureaus and circuit operators pull tourers to certain sites with the aid of making demands. If person wants to get away from mundane life and finds a image of the Caribbean, the touristry provider pulls possible visitant s off from their current locations. Crompton ( 1979 ) besides mentioned socio-psychological motivations which can be the drive forces to do vacations but the effectual pick of finish was the drawing power of the finish itself. He believes that socio-psychological motivations can direct tourers towards a peculiar finish but, in the bottom line is that pull factors are predominating in the determination devising procedure. In contrast, Uzzell ( 1984 ) believes that tourers are instead motivated to see finishs which match their psychological demands than traveling to topographic points because of the particular qualities which are offered at that place. He does non believe that both push and pull factors are motivation fatctors. In his sentiment, pull factors are instead accounts for common touristic activities so relevant incentives. He adds that pull factors should even be eliminated from the survey of toursim motive. Crompton ( 1979 ) states that, in world, persons experience at the same time mixtures of both push and pull factors and those factors do non needfully stand entirely. As mentioned before, there can be several push factors actuating an person but besides more than one pull factor offered by a site. For illustration, person might be pushed to see Pearl Harbour because his/her gramps has died there during World War II. Apart from that, a travel bureau is offering a two-week holidays bundle in Hawaii particularly prepared for singles, drawing people to the island. Consequently, idividuals might see both push and pull facors. Push and Pull factors should non be treated as moving independently from each other, even though they might match to single phases in travel determination devising ( Crompton, 1979 ) . Persons travel because they are pulled by finishs and attractive forces and at the same clip pushed by their ain internal forces. Expectancy theory In contrast to the theory of Maslow s Hierarchy of demands, the anticipation theory, which was invented by Victor Vroom in 1964, focuses instead on results than on demands. In order to be motivated, Vroom linked attempt, public presentation and results to motive. There are three variables which are mentioned: Anticipation, Valence and Instrumentality. Increased public presentation is the consequence of increased attempt, which is the basic belief of anticipation ( Green, 1992 ) . An illustration of anticipation would be the belief that something will acquire better if person works harder for it. The 2nd variable, instrumentality, is the belief that person performs good, a valued result will be received ( Green, 1992 ) . In illustration, if person does a good occupation, it will be valued and he/she possibly gets a wage rise. Valence is defined as the importance that the single topographic points upon the expected result ( Green, 1992 ) . This would intend that if an employee is chief ly motivated by money, he/she would non value other offers like a new office or extra clip off. Having understood these variables, the basic thought behind the theory is that persons adapt their degree of attempt depending on the possible result. In Vroom s sentiment, if person believes that if he/she is working harder but the wagess and public presentations will non be increased and moreover offered wagess are non valued, the person will non be motivated. It is of import to advert that all three variables have to be fulfilled in order to accomplish motive. The theory can be applied to any state of affairs where person expects a certain result to go on. In relation to dark touristry and the trial of battlegrounds, tourers expect certain, in most instances intangible, outcomes. Sing the illustration of pilgrims journey and religious experience, people believe that the trial of Gravess or topographic points where relations or friends have died can ensue in better understanding the past events and an increased personal healing procedure. Motivational Strength It depends on motivational strength whether person prefers making one end opposed to another. Despite the diverseness of surveies and theories, most of them are sharing a basic thought: persons have a certain sum of energy which must be directed towards ends ( Pearce, 1993 ) . From a psychological position, making a end can be equalised with being motivated. If a demand arouses, which is turning by and by, the person wants to fulfill it every bit shortly as possible. For illustration, if person is hungry, he/she wants to halt this unpleasant feeling by eating nutrient. Equally shortly as the demand is satisfied, the balanced province returns which is called homeostasis ( Solomon, Bamossy, Askegaard and Hogg, 2006 ) . Human behavior is driven by a basic mechanism to cut down unpleasant tensenesss, which is termed thrust theory. In footings of selling, the unpleasant province reffers to the demand of goods and services which are desired. Though, to be more precise, the grade of motive is non ever the same. For illustration, the motive to purchase a new one is really high because the old 1 has been used for many old ages. If the individual who desires a new Television would hold bought one a few months ago, the motive to travel once more to the shop and pass money would be much lower. The research on motive in order to understand what really drives behaviour focal points more on cognitive factors instead than on biological 1s. For this research, the thrust theory is non important and will non be applied. Though, another theory about motive is taken into consideration. The Expectancy theory suggests that people prefer one merchandise or service over another because they believe that this pick has more positive effects for them ( Solomon, Bamossy, Askegaard and Hogg, 2006:93 ) . For this survey it is of import to happen out which positive effects could be of import to visitants to battlegrounds and to dark touristry sites in general. Incentives Motivation: History Harmonizing to Smith ( 1996 ) , sites of war attract fundamentally people with a strong involvement in history and military strategians. These persons are acute to analyze the events of the past while walking around the country. This would intend that a battlefield visitant does non needfully hold to be attracted by the presence of decease ; involvement in history can besides be the ground why people visit battlegrounds. The same consequences were found by Crompton ( 1979 ) and Anderton ( 1995 ) , who stated that cultural and historical involvement can be a strong incentive for pleasance travel. Further, Crompton ( 1979 ) drew the decision, from questioning 42 grownup people, that instruction and freshness are of import travel incentives. In contrast to this, Beech ( 2000 ) , who, amongst other subjects, investigated the visitors? motive to concentration cantonments, does non wholeheartedly believe that visitants with no connexion to the cantonment are motivated by lone involvement in larning or history. The same theory can be applied to battlefield touristry. There is, from a historical position, a demand in battlefield touristry, National Geographic released in 1992 a usher for conflict sites including their histories called the Guide to Civil War National Battlefield Parks in the USA, including exposure and maps demoing troop motions. Today there are immense sums of books covering with battleground Tourss and similar subjects on about all sites of war in the universe. Foley and Lennon ( 2000 ) see that the literature frequently obliterates and ignores the negative facets of history, sometimes mistakenly and, more frequently, on intent. The two research workers want to declare that it is evidently non plenty to show the historical and cultural landscape to the visitants, without turn toing the issue of morality and offense which are linked with the topographic points. Ignoring and stamp downing the position on history every bit good as altering nature of history are the consequence of the altering society, which can be linked to altering readings. To summarize the subject of historical motives, it can be said that involvement in history can be a incentive which drives worlds to see sites of decease and catastrophe. Not without ground there are plenty beginnings where tourers can fulfill at that place wonder about battlegrounds. Due to the fact that there is really small research on tourer motive to battlefield tourer sites, it can be concluded, based on the sentiments of other research workers ( Crompton, 1979 ; Anderton, 1995 ; Beech, 2000 ) , that the motivation to larn more about human history is verifiably a driver, but non the individual and lone ground why people are sing battlegrounds. Education In order to understand why wars and conflicts have occurred and what the effects were, dark touristry sites can be helpful in organizing sentiments. Some persons need to cognize why their friends or relations needed to decease. Educational travel was foremost introduced during the beginning of the industrialization in the seventeenth century, when sweetening of instruction and substructure, amongst others, increased ( Burkart and Medlik 1981 ) . In 1892, the first dark touristry exhibitions with an educational constituent were promoted in New York, USA. Volcanic eruptions of Mount Vesuvius, fictions of hurricanes and the destruction of Martinique were on the day-to-day docket of the events on Coney Island ( Rojek 1993 ) . In the present, dark tourers sites are acute on advancing themselves with the aid of implementing educational facets. Tourists besides see a opportunity in self-learning through educational travels. There are assorted institutes offering educational Tourss to American civil war sites every bit good as information Sessionss, for illustration the Smithsonian Associates, the Department of Education in Washington D.C, which offered a circuit following the flight path of President Abraham Lincoln s liquidator. One of the nucleus purposes of such events is to do people learn from past errors, what and how events in the yesteryear could hold been prevented. At Pearl Harbor, USA, people believe that instruction could assist in supplying a more unafraid tomorrow. Peoples who visited the topographic point are thought to hold understood why the onslaught happened and should hold realised that such a calamity must neer go on once more ( Ryan, 2007 ) . The trouble with the subject instruction in relation to dark tourer sites is the thin line between instruction and amusement. Walsh ( 1992 ) believes that the educational mission lies really close to amusement. As mentioned in Chapter , the London Dungeon offers horrifying Tours, where people can see how anguish has been used in the yesteryear in a really realistic mode. This may non be a really critical or serious attack to history, but it shows the world and decidedly remains in visitors? heads. Of class this is besides an attack to derive the attending of possible visitants, to do history, which might frequently look tiring particularly to childs and younger people more interesting and synergistic. Harmonizing to Lennon and Foley ( 2000 ) , the function of media is besides lending to the belittlement of serious events. Persons with less cognition of modern-day history could misconstrue imitations or films of people playing a function in really serious calamities and catastrophe. Remembrance Foley and Lennon ( 1993 ) define recollection as a critical human activity that connects people to their yesteryear and hereafter. Harmonizing to that they continue to declare that the mode how worlds remember define us in the present. The two research workers besides province that a big portion of dark tourer attractive forces are warehouses for memories . Sites related to decease attract people who want to mark either the event or their relations and friends who have died. In the Christian faith, there is one twenty-four hours a twelvemonth which is dedicated to all saints, called the All Saints? Day. In common pattern, many Christians visit the graveyards and the Gravess where loved people are buried. But non merely memories of asleep people stay in heads. Remembrance is besides needed to recognize what cardinal incidents formed the individualities of persons, sometimes even the individualities of whole civilizations. This is why some dark tourer sites are really rigorous in sho wing their memorials sing the repect of visitants. At Pearl Harbor, a short movie is shown to tourers before they are allowed to come in the memorial country. Furthermore, visitants have to be dressed in an appropriate manner. This attention shows an obvious difference between normal tourer attractive forces and dark touristry commemorations. For case, cipher attentions if person wears trunkss and a chapeau when sing the Great Wall of China, which is besides a war-related symbol. This difference in presentation might be due to the fact that some symbols of war or war sites are, because of the clip which has already passed since so, are out of day of the month . The Great Wall of China is more than 2000 old ages old, while the onslaught on Pearl Harbour happened 61 old ages ago. Furthermore, most of import, victims of the conflict of Pearl Harbor are still alive. Identity Identity can besides be a impulsive force to see dark tourer sites. Peoples, even if they do non hold a direct connexion to the dark touristry event itself, come to a topographic point of decease to derive a sense of individuality. As mentioned in Chapter , tourers are sing sites where famous persons have met with sudden decease, placing themselves as portion of the dead character ( Rojek, 1993 ) . Ashworth ( 2004 ) believes that the hunt for self-understanding and self-identity was the birth of the touristry industry. He argues that people who are sing sites of decease and catastrophe do non needfully hold thanatouristic motives. In the research worker s sentiment, personal motivations arise from personal or household history and the desire to pay regard to those whom the visitant feels a connexion. Ashworth ( 2004 ) references that people from Australia and New Zealand are saying that it would be a motive for them to see Gallipoli in order to detect who they are and what happened to their in sires in history. In this instance, mentioning to Seaton ( 1996 ) , the thanatouristic component is weak, because there is no grounds that visitants are looking for the macabre and terrorization. Curiosity Harmonizing to Ashworth ( 2004 ) , tourers can besides be attracted to sites of decease and atrociousness because of wonder. Some research workers besides indicate that people visit dark tourer sites in order to see ghastly exhibits ( Cooper, 2006 ; Yuill, 2003 ) . Yuill ( 2003 ) states that those visitants who come the the site because of couriosity seldom have/had any friends or household members who fought in wars or served in the battleground presented. In Uzzells ( 1989 ) sentiment, people show an insatiate demand in atrociousness. Persons sometimes have a unusual wont to be motivated and attracted by psychological stimulations of negative moral worth. This would intend that they have a strong involvement in calamities and catastrophes and would be classified in Seatons ( 1996 ) strong thanatouristic component graduated table. Rojek believes that wonder about dark touristry events and sites is widely spread. Location Several writers ( Hanink A ; Stutts, 2002 ; Yuill, 2003 ) reference that the location of a dark tourer site or a battleground is important for its figure of visitants. Battlefields which are in propinquity of other sights or shut to topographic points with a big population might pull a big figure of visitants. Strong involvement in decease and catastrophe might non chiefly be the motivations to see dark tourer sites which are close to someones hometown. A trip on the weekend with the household in order to go on 1s instruction can besides be grounds to lend to, in this instance, weak thanatourism. Methodology Introduction In Chapter , the research worker outlined a theoretical background for this survey. In order to finish the emipiracl research successfully, it is indispensable to supply an appropriate methodological analysis. It is necessary to choose an overall paradigm for every research. There are two paradigms which are frequently discussed in the literature: qualitative and quantitative ( Creswell, 2003 ) . The research worker defines qualitative research as research technique which uses multiple methods which are synergistic and humanistic. The research inquiries might alter and be refined during the interview with the participant. Furthermore, the reseracher makes an reading of the collected information ; he filters the informations through a personal lens ( Creswell, 2003:182 ) . Alternatively, the quantitative paradigm is based on proving a theoretical theorem. Quantifiable variables, usining statistical processs are analysed. This research method is used to find the generalisability of a theory. The research worker chiefly uses postpositivist claims for developing cognition ( Creswell, 2003:18 ) . In other words, findings are identified as positive if a research testifies consequences of footings which have been defined in progress. The research worker is able to cut down to specific variables and inquiries. The purpose of a quantitative research is to roll up informations on preset instruments that yield statistical informations. It depends on the research worker s nature and aims which paradigm will be selected. As touched in chapter , the research on market cleavage and consumer determination devising is largely based on quantitative and statistical analysis. As this research tries to find the importance of the function of battleground sites in tourers decion to see those sites, a wide scope of information and a batch of repsonses are needed. Therefore, the quantitative research method will be used. This chapter describes the choice of the survey site every bit good as the considerations for an effectual method of roll uping dependable informations, including a presentation of the the restrictions of the methodological analysis. The study design, which provides a numeral description of attitudes and sentiments of visitants of the HGM, will be presented. Choice of the survey site One of the first major determinations to be made is the pick of the survey site. This research is look intoing in motives of tourers sing battlefiled tourer sites. Therefore, it would be most appropriate to take a battleground as survey site. Due to the fact that all large conflicts in the present country of Austria have taken topographic point in and before the nineteenth century, there are no battlegrounds which are interesting for the public anymore. Though, there are museums covering with the subject of war and war history. The Heeresgeschichtliche Museum ( HGM ) in Vienna shows exhibits of the Austrian military history from the sixteenth century to 1945. It is located in the Arsenal, a historical composite of edifices from the monarchy, which was physique between 1850 and 1856 under the behest of Emperor Frant Joseph I by Ludwig Foerster and Theophil Hansen. The HGM claims to be the oldest and largest purpose-made military history museum in the universe. It exhibits chiefly arms, rigs, uniforms and exposure of the clip from the monarchy of the Habsburg household to the terminal of World War II. There are 11 lasting exhibitions offered to visitants: The Thirty Years War, Wars against the Turks, Prince Eugene of Savoy, Maria Theresa ( The eighteenth century ) , Room of the Gallic Wars, Radetzky Room, Room of Francis Joseph, Sarajewo Room, World War I, Republic and Dictatorship, Austria 1918 until 1945 and Naval Power Austria. One of the most noteworthy parts of the Museum?s aggregation is the couch wher e the Federal Chancellor Engelbert Dollfu A ; szlig ; died in 1934 after beeing shooting by a National Socialist and the car in which the Archduke Francis Ferdinand was asassinated in Sarajewo in 1914. The handiness and suitableness as dark tourer site, every bit good as the assortment of exhibitions offered were important in taking the HGM as survey site. In order to capture the largest possible figure of respondents, the research worker decided non to separate between the exhibitions. Due to the fact that all of the showroom?s subjects are related to battlefield instead dark touristry, the same questionnaire will be used for all of them. In add-on to profit of holding more visitants to spread out the sample size, taking the HGM as a survey site has the follwing advantages: due to many resting topographic points in the museum, tourers can take part in the study without beeing disturbed while detecting the exhibitions. Furthermore, the research worker expects that the site attracts tourers with legion motives, such as those with an involvement in war, involvement in larning about the Austria history and holding an penetration in life during the monarchy and the wars. The questionnaire It was decided that a questionnaire study will be used, which is one of the most common methods to garner information from respondents. Creswell ( 2003 ) defines a study as a bundle of standadised information from a specific subject normally by agencies of questionnaire or interview. He lists several advantages of a questionnaire, amongst others, the ability to roll up informations merely and the easiness of administrating, coding and analyzing a study. In ground of that, a self-administered questionnaire with the purpose of acquiring information about tourers motives to battlefield tourer sites was developed. Socio-demographic and travel-related inquiries are besides portion of the study. The concluding questionnaire consists of 20 ( 16 inquiries severally for Vienese occupants ) closed-ended inquiries which were asked in relation to possible motives to the HGM and battlefield touristry to set up if their motives reflect the literature. 3 demographic inquiries were asked in order to set up a profile of visitants to the site. 9 inquiries were designed on a dichotomous response graduated table, which means that the respondent has two options to take. The others have 5-point-Likert graduated table response options ; the respondent is presented with a uninterrupted graduated table runing from 1 ( minimal mark ) to 5 ( maximal mark ) . These inquiries are used to mensurate tourer s degree of cognition about the HGM, the importance of t he HGM in visitants determination to come to Vienna, the grounds for sing the HGM and the involvement in battlefield touristry in general. The concluding questionnaire is laid out in four pages and arranged in four subdivisions. Question 1a to 5a seeks to understand the tourists? travel forms to Vienna and is designed for non-residents of Vienna. Section B ( inquiries 1b to 7b ) purposes to profile the visitors? trip to the HGM including travel forms, motives and determination devising. The 3rd portion, inquiry 1c to 5c, seeks to place the involvement in battlegrounds in general. Finally, subdivision D, contains 3 inquiries bespeaking the respondent profile. Research design In order to reply the research inquiries, the push/pull theoretical account will be tested. The research worker will analyze the findings and use them to the push/pull theory. It will be identified which push and pull factors are relevant in visitors? motive to sites related to wars and conflicts. Furthermore, the research worker assumes that there are certain factors impacting visitant s motive. Premises about factors act uponing visitors? motive were developed and proved subsequently in chapter . : people are instead motivated to see the HGM if ( 1 ) they have no cognition about the museum, ( 2 ) the distance to the museum is near, ( 3 ) the person reached a certain age which enables him/her to understand fortunes of the past and reflect them on his/her young person and eventually ( 4 ) the person has a relation to Austria and its history. These premises were the footing for following hypotheses: H1: Most respondents have neer been to the HGM before. H2: The better portion of the respondents lives in Vienna or in its environing country. H4: The better portion of the respondents will be older than 50. H3: Most respondents have a relation the HGM ( close relatives/friends who experienced war )
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
Illlegal Street Racing Essays Illlegal Street Racing Paper Illlegal Street Racing Paper Race the Strip, Not the Street. One of the fastest growing worldwide sports right now is racing. There are numerous forms of racing but Street Racing is one that is mainly performed by teenagers. Street racing originated from Drag Racing, on a quarter-mile strip. As the sport of street racing began to spread around the early Ã¢â¬Ë90s, people couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t really afford to go to a legal track and race, and soon enough teens began racing on public streets and highways. Street racing is an adrenaline rush to teens but most do not realize the hazards and consequences they have to face if something goes wrong. Many teenagers think it is fine to race or speed on public streets because thatÃ¢â¬â¢s what they see in video games. Its either racing on the street and you get no damage to your car or you are running away from police. All these games greatly impact those who race the streets because they think they are invincible just like in the games where if they total their car, it restarts, or if they get stopped by police, cash or points are being taken away. Some donÃ¢â¬â¢t realize that street racing is a serious issue not to be thought of as a game. According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration motor vehicle accidents are the leading cause of death for people between the ages of 16 and 20. (NHRA Illegal Racing Stats) Teenagers have a higher probability of death from an automobile accident, due to irresponsibility and deficiency of driving experience. Most teenage fatal accidents are a cause of teenagers under the influence of a substances or just simple reckless driving to make an impression towards their peers. Ã¢â¬Å"Street racing is just plain ignorant. Why would you want to put anyone elses life in danger? Its just ridiculous. (Gary Scelzi, NHRA Driver) Indeed, it is ridiculous, street racing not only puts their life in danger but as well as pedestrians, and other drivers. Before they choose to race someone on public roads they should ask themselves this, Ã¢â¬Å"Would I like the guilt and consequences for the death of a family I killed in an accident because I lost of control, just for the fact that that I wanted to race a friend on the freeway? Ã¢â¬ In Arizona, the law for street racing is harsh and has serious life changing consequences. ArizonaÃ¢â¬â¢s Racing Statue 28-708) states that: A person shall not drive a vehicle or participate in any manner in a race, speed competition or contest, drag race or acceleration contest, test of physical endurance or exhibition of speed or acceleration or for the purpose of making a speed record on a street or highway. Penalties for conviction of street racing (first offense) include: Possible jail time and/or probation, a fine of around $250 or more, suspension of your license for a period of time determined by the judge, up to 90 days, and community service. A second offense within 24 months can result in a Class 6 felony: jail time-no probation, a fine around $350 or more, and revocation of your license. Racing counts as 8 points against your license. Accumulation of 8 points in one year results in Traffic Survival School, and 13 or more points can result in additional license suspension. If drag racing leads to catastrophic auto accident or fatal accident, you will be charged with a felony crime and open yourself to liability in a personal injury or wrongful death lawsuit. Cheryl A Brown, Phoenix Street Drag Racing Attorney) Nationwide statistics show that 49 people are injured for every 1,000 who participate in illegal street racing. (Illegal Racing Stats, NHRA) When racing on public streets a lot of hazards are present. These hazards consist of traffic, pedestrians and objects such as trees, numerous types of poles, walls, and signs. An accident at high speeds in this kind of environment is extremely dangerous. A Street racing accide nt causes catastrophic damage to themselves and others due to loss of control at high speeds. If a collision with an object or loss of control were to happen at high speeds there is nothing to stop them except for what is around them which generally is something harmful, such as trees, buildings and other another vehicle. A collision with another object in a public area is almost certainly fatal. The majority of outcomes of racing accidents are disastrous on both sides, drivers and victims. Illegal street racing not only takes its toll in innocent lives, but affects families for years after. Their grief is compounded by knowing that their loved one died without reason; that their death could have been prevented. (Families Against Speeding Drivers-FASD) Success of racing without losing control or colliding without some object is not always triumphant there can still be legal consequences that can affect their daily life. These legal penalties could put them in a financial loss. This financial loss can come from fines and citations they receive. Jail time is going to greatly put them in a financial loss, from paying attorneys to being able to afford to bail them out. Meanwhile in jail their employment can also be tarnished, they will lose wages from their job. In Arizona there have been numerous tragedies with teenagers street racing, one which went to local high schools. Phillip Vogel, a student from Chaparral High School passed away on May 16, 2006 from a fatal car accident. The night before he was racing a fellow student when he lost control, hit a tree and a concrete entrance of a neighborhood subdivision. Phillip was a senior and because of what he decided to do that night he never lived to see the day of his graduation. Mike Sakal, East Valley Tribune) It is very unfortunate these tragic accidents happen, but sometimes teenagers do not stop to think of the possible outcomes and risks involved in street racing. Most donÃ¢â¬â¢t realize the tremendous consequences and risk of death; they donÃ¢â¬â¢t stop to think that those could be their last moments. Yes, sometimes there are substances involved, and driving under the influence is another factor that comes into play into street racing. When driving under the influence of a substance, teenagers feel invincible, they start playing around and that is when accidents start happening. Teenagers feel that they need to prove themselves by racing some one else, but they do not realize in how much danger they are putting themselves in. They feel the need for speed and donÃ¢â¬â¢t stop to think. Ã¢â¬Å"Street Racing is always too intense to have any fun. You have to run away from the police, make sure no one cuts in front of you, that youÃ¢â¬â¢re not going to crash. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s crazy. You canÃ¢â¬â¢t have fun worrying about so many things. At the track, these things donÃ¢â¬â¢t exist and you can just go fast! (ABEL IBARRA, NHRA driver of the KN Filters/Toyo Tires Mazda RX7) There are many alternatives to street racing, teenagers just have to realize how dangerous it is to race on the streets and look for a local track where they can race on the weekends for an affordable price and a safe and controlled environment. In the early 1950s, NHRA founder Wally Parks began working with law-enforcement agencies around the country to entice illegal street racers onto dry la kes and abandoned runways where more organized competition could be staged. Today, that basic initiative remains NHRAs primary mission. Given the scope of todays street racing epidemic, NHRA is even more committed to providing safer racing alternatives through thousands of legal, sanctioned events that take place on hundreds of drag strips across the United States each weekend through its Street Legal program. (NHRA STREET LEGAL DRAGS) This alternative to racing the streets because there are no worries. They donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to worry about police or having to worry about the dangers, such as colliding with other traffic or harmful structures. They just get inspected to insure the car is safe to race, pay a small fee and just have fun, in a safe controlled environment. At the urging of Southern California law-enforcement agencies, NHRA in 1994 began a high-profile and closely scrutinized program of events for street-legal cars and motorcycles in Southern California. Since then, thousands of potential illegal street racers throughout the country have turned to Street Legal programs at NHRA member tracks, where as many as 700 racers may attend an event. (NHRA STREET LEGAL DRAGS) Many racers have chosen to go the safe way and race the strip for a small fee. Others choose to race their streets and take a chance they say that the adrenaline rush is not the same at the track. Looking back, I know I could have benefited from a Street Legal program from the standpoint of safety for myself and others around me. You always hear about people doing dumb things on the streets at three oclock in the morning; these kinds of things just dont happen at the racetrack. (NHRA, LARRY DIXON, driver of the Miller Lite Top Fuel dragster) At the track thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a les s significant chance that something is going to go wrong. It is so controlled and precise that the only thing that could go wrong is technical problems with the vehicle. Compared to the streets they donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to worry about all the dangerous factors hey just concentrate on pure racing, and have their mind set on what they have to do to win their race. Many street racing accidents can be prevented by the teenage racing community it is just a matter of them getting educated about the consequences and hardships you can suffer from an accident involved in street racing. There are also many that donÃ¢â¬â¢t know that possibly their local track offers events where they can race and prove themselves in a controlled and precise environment for a small fee and an inspection of their vehicle to make sure it is safe for the track. If they truly love the sport of racing they should race at the track. Not only is it going to keep them out of trouble but it is going to keep them safe and having fun racing in a carefree environment. Brown, Cheryl A. Drag Racing. Cheryl A. Brown, LLC. Attorney at Law. 2007. Cheryl A. Brown, L. L. C. 21 Dec 2007 duiaz. com/PracticeAreas/Drag-Racing. asp. Dixon, Larry. Take it from the Drivers. NHRA Street Legal Drags. 2003. National Hot Rod Association. 21 Dec 2007 nhra. com/streetlegal/drivers. html. NHRA, Illegal Racing Stats. NHRA Street Legal Drags. National Hot Rod Association. 21 Dec 2007 nhra. com/streetlegal/stats. html. NHRA, NHRA Street Legal. NHRA Street legal Drags. 2003. National Hot Rod Association. 21 Dec 2007 nhra. com/streetlegal/index. html. Ibarra, Adel. Take it from the Drivers. NHRA Street Legal Drags. 2003. National Hot Rod Association. 21 Dec 2007 nhra. com/streetlegal/drivers. html. Sakal, Mike. Street Racing Accidents. Evo Street Racers. 2006. Eas t Valley Tribune. 21 Dec 2007 http://evostreetracers. com/streetracingaccidents190. tml. Scelzi, Gary. Take it from the Drivers. NHRA Street Legal Drags. 2003. National Hot Rod Association. 21 Dec 2007 nhra. com/streetlegal/drivers. html. Unknown The Effects of Illegal Street racing on Families. Families Against Speeding Drivers. 2005. FASD (families against speeding drivers). 21 Dec 2007 fasd. info/home. cfm? dir_cat=38151. Image of Chart: NHTSA Fatal Car Accident Statistics. Fatal Car Accidents Pictures Stories. www. car-accidents. com. 21 Dec 2007 car-accidents. com/pages/fatal-accident-statistics. html.