Saturday, August 31, 2019

Creative Writing †Big Me Essay

In the world of fantasy, the child chooses the roles he wants to play. In the world of fantasy, the child finally finds his essence and feels that he is valued by others. In Dan Chaon’s â€Å"Big Me†, showing and telling serves the instrument of the child’s imagination, and the means of escaping his real-world loneliness. Dan Chaon creates an unbelievable image of the child who tries to define his role and meaning in the world, through the prism of thirty-two-year-old Andy O’Day who tells the story of his childhood. â€Å"I never felt like danger. I was convinced of my own powers of stealth and invisibility. [†¦] He couldn’t see me unless I chose to be seen† (Chaon, 2002). In Chaon’s story showing and telling, observation and imagination provide a young boy with unlimited power – the power that he cannot use in real world, and the power he needs to compensate for the constantly increasing sense of loneliness. He is going through a difficult period when his parents are drinking and quarreling; his brother attempts a suicide; under the increasing social pressure, the child can no longer remain realistic, and to some extent his showing and telling becomes the key to moral, mental, and spiritual salvation. To be a Detective for Andy means to save the imagined two million city of crime, and to have an opportunity to penetrate into other houses for investigation: â€Å"I had been going to his house frequently by that time. I had a notebook, into which I had pasted the Santa photo, and a sample of his handwriting, and a bit of hair from his comb. [†¦] There were letters: â€Å"I am tired, unbelievably tired, of going around in circles with you. [†¦] I had copied this down in my detective’s notebook† (Chaon, 2002). Andy imagines himself a Detective; he investigates the way other people live; he writes everything down into his small notebook – this is how his showing and telling works. The need to control other people’s lives does not leave him as he reaches the thirty second year of his life. His showing and telling turns into the second life, which he secretly leads as a reminiscence of his early years when he could sense the smell of the unlimited power of a Detective in a two million city. References Chaon, D. (2002). Big me. In D. Chaon, Among the Missing, Ballantine Books.

Friday, August 30, 2019

The Evolution of Islam Judaism and Christianity

Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are the most recognized and popular religions around the globe. The three religions are in some ways very similar while at the same time very diverse. Collectively all three religions are monotheistic which means the belief in one God, creator of the Universe who hears the prayers of his faithfuls. The Jews believe that God made a pact with their ancestors, the Hebrews, saying that they are the chosen ones. They await the return if the Messiah. The Christians believe that God in the form of Jesus came to earth and established the Christian church amongst his apostles.The Muslims accept both the Jewish Messiah and the Christian Jesus, but in turn believe that their profit Muhammad was the last and greatest sent by God. The religions are all of book, and have written records of God's words. The Jews have the Hebrew Bible, the Christians have the New and Old Testament of the Christian bible which includes the Hebrew Bible, and the Muslims have the Qur'an . One of the first major Jewish Architectural creations known is the First Temple in Jerusalem.This temple was built to house the Ark of the Covenant by King Soloman back in the 10th century, it later became a place for the Jewish to worship. However it was destroyed by the Babylonians, the people where exiled and the Ark stolen. There was another grand temple built after the land was returned to the Jews by Cyrus the Great of Persia, but again destroyed by the Romans. The temple was said to be made of imported wood and was supported by two large bronze pillars. A big part of Judaism is the educations of the religion, they gather in buildings called Synagogues for this very purpose.These buildings were used by Jewish men women and children to study the Torah, and was also used for social gatherings. Before buildings were specifically built for this purpose, they would meet in private homes or anywhere Torah scrolls were kept and read. Then the construction of house like buildings be gan. One of the first has an assembly hall, a courtyard, and a separate room for women, soon after residential rooms were added. The two architectural features that distinguished the assembly hall from the other rooms were long benches lining the walls, and a place for the scrolls.Jews also built meeting places like that of the Roman basilica. This included an aisle on both sides and separated from this an apse adorned with Torah scrolls and facing east. Once Christianity was recognized by the government it's number grew rapidly, more specifically amongst the wealthy. Early Christian art is described as style and imagery of the Jewish and Roman visual traditions, this is called syncreatism. Artist take images from past traditions and give them their own purpose. The most famous is what is known as the Good Shepard.Before it was a depiction of Orpheus amongst his animals, or sometimes considered a personification of philanthropy. However in the time of early Christianity, this same i mage became a depiction of the Good Shepard of the book of Psalms. Most early Christian art is very rare and depicted either God, his son Jesus, or the Holy Ghost. Some of the few remains of art work are in catacombs which is where the dead were buried. The most famous of these are found where two Christians who were martyred for their faith are buried.The art work of their cubicula, or small room created for the deceased, is a painting of the Good Shepard. Under to painting are the words: â€Å"I am a good Shepard. A good Shepard lays down his life for the sheep. †, and around the painting are smaller paintings depicting the story of Jonah and the sea monster. Early Muslim architects were influenced by the Romans and the Byzantines. They began to build large numbers of mosques, palaces, and shrines. Of these buildings one of the most famous and recognized is the Dome of the Rock, or Haram Al-Sharif.The building site is said to be the place where Muhammad rose to the Heavens to be with God. This site also has important value to both Jews and Christians. For the Jews this is the site where both First and Second Jewish temples were built and destroyed. For the Christians this site marks the creation of Adam and where the patriarch Abraham was sent to kill his son by God. Because both Jewish and Christian faiths have history here, the building of the Dome of the Rock is the first architectural statement by Islam that it completes the other religions.

Ethics †Hamburger Essay

Finance is an essential part of Business. It is imperative to be ethical in this sector as it’s the area that handles the money, various ethical issues fall under this sector for example, unlawful conduct (bribery). Health is also a imperative part of business as a business needs to have a sanitary area for employees to work, it’s even more important for McDonalds as they make food. Kitchens & the restaurant need to be sanitary. It’s rather unorthodox that I put Finance and health together, but the combination can bring out an ethical issue which is Bribery. Restaurants Get Health inspections on a regular bases to ensure they are kept to a good standard, it’s not uncommon for a Inspector to be bribed by an owner to give them a good result. Jacksonville October 2011[1] is a perfect example; two men were arrested for receiving bribes. The men were giving good results to poor standard restaurants. These restaurants were named within Jacksonville this means they will receive much less business, they will be lucky to get a few customers. These Restaurants have acted unethically which is part of the reason for the major decline in customers. McDonalds have had one issue of bribery, this was in Hong Kong. The managing director for McDonalds Hong Kong[2] was arrested for accepting bribes. The suppliers of McDonalds Hong Kong were bribing him to ensure McDonalds used them to supply the major fast food restaurant. This was a major hit to McDonalds as their reputation was tarnished, this had an effect on them, and Chinese investors did not want to invest in an unethical company. McDonalds Finance department need to ensure they don’t bribe inspectors or other bodies that have an impact on McDonalds, as that can hurt their reputation by a very large amount. McDonalds finance should also allocate money to ensure stores are sanitary; this will give them no reason to be bribed. McDonalds UK are on the right track as they own the farms that supplies its stores. Ethics: Marketing & Human Resource Many Ethical issues occur in Marketing such as discrimination. The implications this can have are catastrophic. McDonalds being a fast food need to ensure that they don’t discriminate when advertising a new product (promotional burger). If they discriminate then the person subject to discrimination will feel emotionally hurt, which is bad as people around that person will stop going to McDonalds, this will lead to a massive decrease in customers. as they will not want to eat at an unethical restaurant. A prime example of an unethical advert is that of Sony [3] Sony were put under the microscope in recent years as they displayed an unethical advert. The Advert was for the PSP (Play Station Portable) the first issue was the fact that they vandalized New York City in order to create its advert, the images painted on the walls was also discriminating to certain races. Sony was lucky that people never saw this as the sales of their PSP would have been much lower than it was. McDonalds Have a menu just for Children, this means advertising towards them, in doing this they are hooking young children to the temptations of Fast Food. This is an ethical issue as they are increasing the rate of obesity. McDonalds have now made their child menus healthier by giving fruit and veg with each meal. They also advertise the fact that fruit is tasty and healthy. They are trying to get children to eat more fruit. Competitors of McDonalds have no such philosophy, for example KFC advertise family meals, which is good for social backing but, the food they advertise is high in salt, fat and oil. All of which are bad for the body. McDonalds need to ensure that when creating a new meal they don’t discriminate against a race. For example if they make a New Mexican Meal, then they need to make sure they don’t advertise in a way that discriminates against Mexicans and they don’t use any labels within their advert. The HR department helps the marketing department. They tell them various things like, what is considered as discrimination. The HR department must ensure this advert does not discriminate against anyone. HR and marketing also work together when it comes to recruitment, the HR department tells marketing what the criteria for a job is, they must ensure no bias and discrimination is involved within this criteria. The Marketing department will then advertise this to the public. If the advert discriminates against someone then the public will think McDonalds is a poor place to work. Food Production Food production has many Ethical issues especially for McDonalds as they are a Fast Food business. Selling their food means their will be an increase in obesity which is a major ethical issue, as the life expectancy of people will drop. This Issue is perhaps the biggest yet. McDonalds have done well to counter this issue (selling healthier meals) they also warn customers what they are eating. The salt content of the Big Mac [4] is 2. 1g this is 42% of a persons daily allowance. Their Medium Fries has 0. 6g of salt this is 12% of a person’s daily allowance. Therefore a meal will have 2. 6g of salt which is 54% of your Daily Allowance, and this is just one of your daily meals and yet you have taken in 54% of your daily allowance. As you can see the health risks are very bad. McDonalds have tried to make a healthier menu but the fact is people love the taste of their burgers, and reducing the salt content can have a monumental effect on the taste. Another Major debate is the meat used within Beef burgers. In recent times there has been a major controversy about Horse meat [5]. Horse Meat has been found in Beef Burgers at Various stores such as Tesco, Burger king etc†¦ These Companies have made Customers afraid of Beef Burgers as they do not know the true ingredients. This issue is big because Tesco was feeding Horse meat to customers without the customer knowing. To make things worse Tesco and other Supermarkets also have traces of Pork within their Beef Burgers, this is a mega breach of trust as people from a Muslim Household are prohibited from eating Pork. Doing this Tesco and other super markets have affected all types of people. McDonalds major Competitor Burger King has also been selling Beef/Horse Burgers, this has ruined the reputation of Burger King, and it has also made people wary of most Fast food stores, as they are not sure what kind of meat is in their products. The Implications of Fast Food are both good and bad; the good part is that it is fast and convenient. The food itself is also made to be a quality meal, for a small price tag. The bad part of Fast food has already been spoken about, health risks. McDonalds need to create even more variety when it comes to healthy meals, as the burgers are still favourable they need to make healthy meals more competitive. Environmental Implications Global Warming is a huge issue. All people in the world contribute to Global warming, even breathing contributes towards it. Global warming is the melting of the polar icecaps, this raises the sea level which means sea level countries will soon be under water. The destruction of the Ozone layer is another issue, if the ozone layer is destroyed then the suns rays will be at full strength which means ultra violet radiation will increase causing a high increase in skin cancer. Businesses have been warned about this and are expected to reduce their energy consumption; they can do this by finding an alternative power source. McDonalds spends millions on energy and water. But money is not the issue, the environment is seeing a major decline, McDonalds have tried to counter this by finding and alternative energy source for their stores. So far they have only got one which is in America, this store uses geothermal energy to heat the store and light it. McDonalds use a lot of packaging; it was smart of them to switch to recycled packaging as this helped the environment. They should tell their customers how important Recycling is. Recycling [6] is the process of reusing paper, glass etc†¦ It is an essential part of our eco system as it saves trees from being cut down, this means more oxygen in the air, which helps the planet in various ways, such as prolonging our resources, this helps cut down Global Warming. Food Production also contributes to Global warming, as they use machinery to produce it, this increases their carbon footprint, taking the size of McDonalds into account it would be hard to acquire the figure of their carbon foot print, but we can assume that it is a very large amount, McDonalds is doing various things to reduce it (environmental projects). Global warming is also very dangerous now as its melting away the homes of various animals such as Polar Bears, the species is in danger because of this. Companies need to cut down on the use of energy to save these animals, and to prolong the life of the Earth Corporate Implications Corporate implications are related to ethics. There are rules and regulations put into place for businesses to follow. These rules are to ensure companies act ethically. McDonalds is doing a great service to the UK as they provide lots of money to government (through tax) they also promote healthy eating, some say this is ironic as they sell fast food, but they are minimising the effect of the ethical issue that is Fast food. Staff at McDonalds needs to know how to act ethically, McDonalds can train staff to do this. McDonalds have been subject to some ethical issue e. g. Hong Kong director arrested for accepting bribes. McDonalds manages need to ensure they comply by the rules put into place to protect both businesses and customers. They must Ensure their legal patents are taken seriously, what i mean by this is the use of their name and logo. Small businesses sometimes copy the brand image of McDonalds as it helps bring in customers due to the customer thinking the store is part of the renowned restaurant. McDonalds has patented their logo to ensure other businesses and competitors can’t use their logo in a professional manner. They have also patented all their products meaning people can’t use the same recipe to make their products. They’ve also patented the names of each product e. g. Big Mc. In doing this they have ensured people can’t copy their brand. Sources [1] http://jacksonville. com/news/crime/2012-05-01/story/jacksonville-police-arrest-2-state-inspectors-restaurant-bribery-sting [2] http://www. chinacsr. com/en/2007/08/14/1599-mcdonalds-executive-arrested-for-taking-bribes-in-hong-kong/ [3] http://www. ethicsscoreboard. com/list/sony2. html [4] http://www. mcdonalds. co. uk/ukhome/more-food/savers-menu. html [5] http://www. telegraph. co. uk/earth/agriculture/supermarkets/9844352/Horse-meat-scandal-Now-Tesco-and-other-supermarkets-admit-to-pork-traces-in-beef-burgers. html [6] http://www. benefits-of-recycling. com/whyisrecyclingimportant/.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Marketing Case Problem Solving Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Marketing Problem Solving - Case Study Example The target market for aggressive campaigning should be the garage owners or dealers who are not mechanics; initially they should be educated about the product, since they are not aware about the use of the product. d. The competitors of Duncan industries were using combination of wholesalers and company salesperson. They also used price strategy to boost their sales. Duncan industries can also work on those lines and develop a good strategy so that its price is also very competitive and also try to use a combination of wholesalers and sales personnel to increase its sales. The industry can carry out a SWOT analysis and hence get solutions to its different current problems. The SWOT analysis will provide a solid base as a springboard to categorize succeeding actions in the marketing plan. According to Kotler and Armstrong (2006), product position or distribution as a "set of interdependent organizations involved in the process of making a product available for use or consumption by consumers". Place strategy has to make use of efficient distribution of products within the marketing channels like the wholesalers or retailers. The industry can look for expanding its business in the European markets. But to carry out this it has to look for a joint venture of a good company which has a brand name and is famous too.

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

HEALTH COMMUNICATION OBJECTIVES Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

HEALTH COMMUNICATION OBJECTIVES - Essay Example Among the objectives that I deemed fit for this paper include improving the health literacy of the population, increase the number of health practitioners with satisfactory communication kills and thirdly is to enlarge figure of patients who report that their health care providers contently involved them in their health care decisions. (Phase 1 report, 2008) The first goal is increasing health literacy among the general population. In an era where many of the rising diseases that is taking a tremendous toll on the world’s population are bad lifestyle habits, there is need to increase health literacy especially in such occasions where disease causes are cumulative persistence of bad habits. Increased awareness of healthy lifestyles that I should uphold has played an enormous part in the lifestyles decision that I make. Secondly, increasing health care practitioners with sufficient communication skills would in a huge way improve the freedom that most patients feel limited when talking to a healthcare provider. In addition, such skills have in the past enhanced the health care process since there was sufficient understanding between me and my health care providers, and between the respective health practitioners. Thirdly, the information involved with patient care technologies is highly involved in making sure that patients or thei r custodians make the wisest decision concerning their health problems. Through the objective, the United States government hopes to liberate the health sector in such a way that expert opinions can be incorporated with patients beliefs as well as the patient’s guardian views to form a single all rounded wise decision about the health care of the respective patient. This I think is most important since I feel a high level of freedom of will and satisfaction having taken decisions concerning my health care that my health care providers adhered to in my

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

The Structured Interview Method Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

The Structured Interview Method - Essay Example The interviewee was a Speech Pathologist at an Elementary School in Northwest suburbs of Chicago.  Ã‚  Ã‚  She indicated that she has been teaching at this school for six years and she has seven years experience as a teacher. She currently teaches 45 students of which are 30 males while 15 are females. The interviewee has also worked for a rehab company in skilled nursing facilities. In this interview, I sought to gain insight about the approach she uses when he teaches a class of learners with special needs. She indicated that parent(s), resource teacher, OT, PT, principal, nurse, school psychologist or general education teacher attend IEP meetings if applicable. The meetings usually vary from 30 minutes to 60 minutes depending on the needs of the student. The interviewee also stated that consultative minutes are completed weekly. However meetings to discuss students on the caseload or those who may need services due to concerns are held twice a month. The teacher indicated that m eetings with the teacher to discuss goals, vocabulary needing to be addressed with the speech therapy setting as well as any other concerns that the teacher may have are usually done at least once a week. The site also uses student study team meetings and it also implements RTI process. The success of this initiative is attributed to the use of cooperative/collaborative teams as well as co-teaching One great lesson I learnt from this interview is that continued teacher education is essential with regards to dealing with special needs learners. The needs of these learners constantly change depending on the environment in which they are living in hence the teachers need to improve their knowledge constantly in order to be in a position to meet the changing needs of the learners. Teachers can gain more knowledge through group discussions since these allow them to interact freely. Teamwork as well as inclusion of all teachers concerned in teaching special education classes are basic ten ets of success with regards to the achievement of the desired goals in improving the quality of education for learners with special needs. The interviewee indicated that SPED students are graded using the same method as regular education students. The goals are goals being addressed through their IEP are noted on progress updates completed at each report card. She also stated that flexible grouping and volunteer parent intervention are essential in order to establish the need of the students with special needs. The other strategy used in teaching students with special needs is to move them down to a grade lower level reading group if it is seen as appropriate to his or her level. However, the only shortcoming I have realised of all the strategies used is that they grade the students with special needs in the same way they grade general students. These two groups are quite different hence they may not use the same strategy to grade them. In conclusion, I can safely say that this inte rview achieved its objectives. As the interviewee aptly stated, there is no right way for everything. This is mainly because of the fact that we live in different areas and these are characterised by different things. For instance, the people in each area have their own way of doing things.

Monday, August 26, 2019

Ansel Adams Photographs Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Ansel Adams Photographs - Research Paper Example Fine arts, therefore, were visual in nature and dealt primarily with aesthetic value while applied arts mainly focused on the purpose of such arts and how they could be used in day to day operations. More and more description of art continues to manifest with the most recent one defining it as a reflection of human creativity. At the beginning of the 20th century, the significance of different forms of art had been classifies in to nine categories. These include; film, comedy, painting, architecture, dance, sculpture, music, poetry and lastly photography. Another variation that had been developed included the establishment of design and graphic arts in place of plastic and visual arts as well as the introduction of other terminologies advertising, television, video, performance, and etcetera. We shall be placing more emphasis on the visual forms of art and more specifically the works of photography done by one Ansel Adams. His black and white classical photographs created a revolutio n in the field of photography. The paper will discuss the various elements of art used in his photographs as well as the meanings they convey. Clear definition of the artistic nature of photography will come out in this research. Background Information Born and raised in a wealthy family in 1902, San Francisco, Ansel Adams was a typical teenage boy. His shy and introvert nature coupled with an attack by a hyperactive disorder forced him to undertake most of his learning at home. It was during his home learning lessons that he stumbled upon a book by James Mason that transformed his life altogether. The book fueled his love for nature and soon they relocated to Yosemite National Park where he managed to coin his skills in photography. Using his camera donated to him by his parents, he managed to capture breath taking pictures of the landscape in the park. It is these photographs that marked the beginning of an incredible lifetime artistic productivity. His first debut published photo graph appeared at the Sierra Club bulletin where he worked as a caretaker at the time. Later on in 1927, he received an award for his critically acclaimed image of a landmark in Yosemite known as the ‘Monolith, the Face of Half Dome’1. He claims that he had visually pictured the result of the photograph before he even clicked away his camera. In his own words, he stated that the image had a distant sharp peak against the backdrop of a dark sky with deep shadows and a brooding form. It is these elements that became the foundation of all forms of visual art. He later on married his longtime girlfriend and musician, Virginia Best, with whom they bore two children, Michael and Anne. Both siblings also got involved the photography and later on took charge of the family business after the passing away of Adams and renamed it the Ansel Adams gallery. Other exemplary works of photography done by Adams include; photographs of skiing and ice skating as well as sledging, which was used by the government to promote winter tourism. Addition, he also took extensive photographs of the inventory of the structure of the historic Ahwahnee Hotel before it got transformed into a hospital by the U.S. Navy. Photographs of Kings and Kern Rivers used by congress to deliberate for the creation Kings Canyon National Park had been captured by his powerful lens2. Additionally, he managed to document a Japanese American internment camp, popularly known as Manzanar, through the use of photographs. His ability to visualize the outcome of

Sunday, August 25, 2019

How the existence of cheat codes could hurt Johnsons argument about Case Study

How the existence of cheat codes could hurt Johnsons argument about video games - Case Study Example Some of these regions are in dire need of security and other resources that are basic for human existence like food, shelter and clothing. The UN is has presence in most parts of the world with different organizations, within it, having key roles to play in promoting people’s wellbeing and improving security. Though the initial charter does not state that the UN should participate in peace keeping, the organization has been influential in keeping peace, for example, in Eastern Europe and Africa. As such, the UN participates in prevention of recurring wars and any spread of warfare to other areas. Therefore, the United States should take the UN as an asset that enhances development and sustainably. The UN has been influential in promoting peace, sustainability and development in many regions which are vital in the economic and political development of the US and the whole world. The most notable peace keeping missions in which the UN was heavily involved are centered in the Mid dle East. There has been a recurrent eruption of war in the Middle East, which has affected the world’s economy. Many countries in the world are affected by these war eruptions, which is a disadvantage to the development of many economic regions. The Middle East is known to have massive oil deposits. It is explicitly reflected that the management of world’s oil deposits is vital to the world economy. As such, any detrimental effects in these nations will affect the world oil prices and thus increase the cost of production the world over. When there instability in this region the first effect is always reduced oil production followed by increased oil prices. The countries in the Middle East are likely to record unfavorable balance of trade as their exports reduce during war or instability. This is an issue that directly affects the US as it is the single-most largest consumer of oil and related products. Were it not for the UN, the Middle East case would have been much worse than it is today. Similarly, diminished trade between the US and the Middle East countries has a direct impact on the economy of the US. If the wars in the Middle East are to continue for the next decade, the economy of the US will be worst affected. Therefore, the indulgence of the UN should be considered an asset as it strengthens the peaceful coexistence in the region. If these indulgences started after the WWI, there would be peace in this region. The activities of the UN should be enhanced to make the organization have increased positive influence worldwide. In addition to this, the UN has been influential in helping Cyprus. This nation has been adversely affected and the UN has stepped in to solve the situation. 6. Evaluation of the United Nations in the Middle East In the recent times, Syria has experienced unrest which led to the displacement of over 350, 000 refugees. As per the year 2012, Iraq recorded the highest number of refugees coming from the country, others ge tting into the country and many others displaced internally. According to statistics, the number of refugees from Iraq was recorded at 1.4 million while internally displaced persons were recorded at 1.3 million. This is a large number of people that need protection and other humanitarian assistance. The UN has since established its mission in the area to help these persons. According to the UN strategy in 2013, the organization is hosting 148, 000 refugees which are particularly from Syria. The r4ecent financial report states that the UN has used a total of 453,386, 000 USD. The UN has been effective in maintaining peace in the Middle East from its ongoing peace missions. The Middle East is

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Critique assignment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Critique assignment - Essay Example It should be noted that the author has also helped in identifying a flow of the problem with the research purpose. The manner in which the topic has been discussed in the introduction makes it easier for the reader to expect the research methodology and findings. From the first instance of having a look at the title of the article, the readers can expect that the introduction will be able to create a textual as well as contextual construct. In simpler words, it can be said that the introduction of the article is clearly relevant with the objective as appointed by the author. It can also be said that the author has address some of the information tags in the introduction which may provide information which takes the reader beyond the understanding of article’s subject matter. This may be considered as irrelevant by some of the critiques but it is important to note that additional information in the introduction allows the readers to evaluate the peculiarities of the research. T hus, overall it can be said that the introduction written by the author in the article proves to be a stronger context to the research’s findings (Barton et al. 2012) The article has been published by International Journal of Audiology which is one of the most significant contributions in the field. The article was received on 15th September 2010. As per the reliability test, the acceptance of the article was done on 10 September 2011. Since the journal in publishing the content for the research purpose, it took another year for the journal to publish the article. The affiliation of the article is with International Journal of Audiology which makes it joint with British Society of Audiology and Nordic Audiological Society. The article’s publishing source, International Journal of Audiology has been a publishing source for many high-rated contributors in the field of audiology. The journal includes both original articles as well as reviews of

Friday, August 23, 2019

Dance research paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Dance - Research Paper Example Vaslav was born in the year 1890 in Kiev. Vaslav’s parents were both dancers that were well acclaimed. This was one of the factors that motivated Vaslav to join the dancing world. The family had its own dancing company where they recruited and trained dancers. Vaslav was a natural dancer and did not require a lot of training. The dancing company trained dancers that performed all over Russia with Vaslav tagged along almost all the events. This was the basis of his experience and he gained a lot of confidence due to facing large crowds at a very young age (Kassing 173). The breakthrough for Nijinsky came when he met up with Sergei Diaghilev. This was one of the most prominent people in the entertainment scene at the time and Nijinsky was fortunate to be linked to him. After a while, he joined his dancing group where he got to learn various dance styles. At first, Nijinsky was not sure of which dancing routine he would pursue and thus, with assistance and training, got to try different dances (Russes). After several trials, he got to decide that ballet dancing was his routine of choice and from there on, he indulged fully in this. Diaghilev took Nijinsky alongside other dancers to Paris for a performance. In this performance, Nijinsky pleased the crowd and got a standing ovation alongside with the other dancers since he was the lead in that particular routine. Le Pavillon d’Armide is one of the most acclaimed pieces that the character performed (Russes). This is a piece that he performed in Paris and gave him a huge positive applaud. His style was different from the people that had initially acted and danced in the piece. The reason for this is that Nijinsky was creative. It is also significant to know that he had the ability to relate actively with the audience. In the particular piece, Nijinsky would at times bend over so as to greet his audience while still

Thursday, August 22, 2019

On the Origin of the Scythed Chariots Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

On the Origin of the Scythed Chariots - Essay Example From this study it is clear that  Alexander is trying to reason about the role of reconstruction. As a distinguished scholar, he takes this opportunity to look for possible evidence that can help in unveiling the exact origin of this weapon. After acknowledging that this mater still remains a contentious issue, he goes ahead to state that he disagrees with Hesychius, but concurs with Xenophon for linking the chariot to King Cyrus the Great. Nonetheless, he concludes by saying that a lot of research still needs to be conducted by looking for all the available evidence that can help in shedding more light on this mater.This paper declares that  the reporter expresses his pleasure with this author for writing about scythed chariots. Having keenly gone trough his analysis, he concluded that it is a product of a vigorous research because it was based on a collection of necessary evidence. Also, the author provided exhaustive explanation to prove his point. For instance, his position t hat this type of chariot was used during the ancient times is accurate. He digs deeper into explaining that the chariot was used at a time when horses had not become stronger as they are today. This is why they were pulled by human beings. He explains this is a candid manner that makes it easier to comprehend by anyone who is interested in knowing about the origin of this weapon.  Alexander’s illustrations are up to the expected standard.

Assess How The Language Of Teenagers Has Changed Over Time Essay Example for Free

Assess How The Language Of Teenagers Has Changed Over Time Essay The language of teenagers has changed radically over time, the use of slang and clichà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½s are now commonly used in everyday English Language, in particular amongst teenagers. For this essay I visited a local high school to gain evidence of how teenagers express themselves and converse with peers and adults, including adults in authority. I also observed an anger management session and listened to the language used in this setting and also at break times. The findings of these observations are on a tape recording enclosed. The language of teenagers is greatly affected by television and pop music and this contributes to the change in modern day English and the phrases and slang that teenagers use, for example in the high school I visited the teenage boys used a lot of phrases and words that are used in rap music, a boy referred to his friends as homies rather that mates of pals the word homies is used a lot within American rap music. This shows how teenagers are influenced and how these kinds of words become popular amongst teenagers. Swearing is also part of modern day language and is very common and has increased hugely over the years, swearing is now socially accepted amongst teenagers and their peers, swearing has always been frowned upon in the English Language but has increased drastically through the past ten years. The change in language is obvious amongst teenagers and adults, most of the teenagers in the school I visited said that they would never swear at parents and teachers and it is disrespectful, although they would not be as concerned about swearing at someone the same age as them as it is not offensive anymore to their generation. This is because when the teenagers parents and teachers were growing up, swearing was seen as very offensive and a sign of disrespect. Case studies I asked a 15-year-old girl to find the five euphemisms that she would use for the following: (a) to die, (b) to urinate (c) to be a drunk (d) to say hello to a friend. I also asked a 15-year-old boy to do the same exercise, these are my findings: Chloe To die: to pass away, to kick the bucket, to be no longer with us, to have slipped away, to have kiffed it. To urinate: to go for a wee, to do a number one, to have a piss, to wet the daisies, to relieve myself. To be drunk: pissed, bladdered, wasted, trollyed, out of it. To say Hello to a friend: alright, hi, hiya. Lee To die: to kiff it, kick the bucket, passed away, to have gone to the pearly gates, passed onto the other side. To urinate: to have a piss, to have a slash, to drain the main vain, to go the bog, to shake the snake. To be drunk: wasted, bladdered, pissed, out of if, wankered. To say hello to a friend: alright mate, alright, how do, hi, or a head nod with no speech. The findings show that gender influences teenagers speech slightly the girls language is slightly more polite than the boys and the boy used a lot of slang when referring to the above words and phrases, the most obvious ones were the words used when the male teenager refers to passing urine as shake the snake, and drain the main vain these sayings caused much amusement to Lees male and female peers. The teenagers are showing how they contribute to new meanings for words and linguistic change. Euphemisms are one of the most fertile sources of new meanings, things that were thought to be to nasty to talk about directly were given polite but roundabout expressions. An example of this is when indoor plumbing was first installed into houses in the eighteenth century the room were first called water closet, this was soon abbreviated to W.C and then replaced by toilet, which had previously meant dressing table. These words are still seen as crude by many people and other euphemisms have came into force such as toilet, bathroom. The teenagers regularly referred to the toilet as the loo and bog. Sex is another area where euphemisms flourish amongst teenagers, in the nineteenth century Jane Austin wrote in her novel they had no intercourse but what the commonest civility required , Jane Austin would of not of expected the effect that this sentence would have on the modern day reader, in her time the word intercourse meant dealings between people. In the twentieth century the phrase sexual intercourse arrived this was used as a delicate way to refer to sex. This has now been shortened to intercourse, and this sexual sense is now so common that the teenagers in the school I visited found it impossible to use the word intercourse in any other sense. They also have their own words for sexual intercourse these words are not seen as offensive and are common in teenagers language. This shows how teenagers influence the change in word meanings and euphemisms in society. The teenagers in the school I visited also use a lot of clichà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½s which, again is another sign of language change in todays society, adults are also guilty of using clichà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½s in modern day English, which is were the Influence could of came from for the teenagers to use clichà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½s in their everday language, some of the most popular clichà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½s I heard amongst the teenagers were at the end of the day, I hear what your saying and basically. The most common one was you know what I mean Another chacteristic of teenage language is rising intonation at the end of a sentence. This has long been noticed as a characteristic feature of Australian English, and is also favoured by some speakers of American English and is very popular within the language of teenagers, this was something that I noticed whilst speaking to the majority of the class. To me as a listener, a sentence ending on a rise sounds like a question as if the speaker is saying She comes from Sydney?, rather than making a declarative statement. But in the last ten years or so, the popularity of Australian soap operas among British teenagers has led to the widespread adoption of this feature among younger people in the UK. It is too early to say whether this is short-term or whether rising intonation will become standard practice for a significant number of British speakers and the teenagers will make it more popular the more they use it. The increasing popularity of the rising intonation can be traced back to a specific event: the arrival in the UK of Australian programmes like Neighbours and Home and Away. Teenagers are big fans of these type of soap operas mean exposure to repeated instances of this feature has had measurable effects on the linguistic behaviour of quite large numbers of British speakers of all ages. Music such as rapping also influences teenagers and many adopt this way of speech some of these words appear below with the translations taken from a book of slang words: Bluh slurred pronunciation of Blood, meaning homie or friend. Bredren meaning mate, or ones audience. It derives from the Jamaican ragga scene, not the German. Buggin Acting weird or upset. Same as acting bug. Herb spliff, bud, dodo, doja, ganja, weed, etc. Wack Awful, cheap, stupid, weak, etc. Rarely spelled whack. Only preceded by wiggedy by the tragically ancient. Murk Murder. Also leave, as in Im finna murk. Peace. Punk Coward or arsehole (not in the anatomical sense). Bling excessively showy or expensive jewellery, cars, etc. From the supposed sound made by light bouncing off diamonds. Its first known usage was in The Silvertones Bling Bling Christmas. (Fo) shizzle, my nizzle (For) sure, my nigger, or alternatively, yes, dear. -izzle is a standard suffix. So shizzle could also mean shit (meaning good), shoes, shirt or shed. (Slang a bluffers guide.1999.pg22) Wigga a white nigger, a wannabe. This way of speaking seems very common nowadays, but I suspect if we were to listen to teenagers from London we would hear a lot more of these words as Londons rap scene is a lot more popular than that of the North West. David Crystal says Its very recent, this new rhythm that comes from rapping, Until recently, people have spoken in the rhythms of Shakespeare: tum te tum te tum. But this new hip-hop accent is rat tat tat tat tat. Its more common than Received Pronunciation these days. Hardly anyone speaks traditional RP any more maybe one or two per cent. (The language revolution pg22) As the language of teenagers changes there will be many linguistic changes and different features introduced over time, as teenagers are very impressionable it is easy to see why these changes spread so quickly. Bibligraphy The language revolution. 2002. David Crystal(Cambridge: Polity Press), Flappers to rappers- American youth slang-.Tom Dalzell (Merriam-Webster / Springfield, Massachusetts. 1996.) Socialinguistics : Nikolas Coupland and Adam Jaworski. Palgrave (1997)

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Bulgaria: High Internet penetration potential for e-commerce

Bulgaria: High Internet penetration potential for e-commerce Coursework in Management Futures Executive Summary The aim of this report is to evaluate the opportunity for development of e-commerce in Bulgaria. The report will examine if there is demand for e-commerce in Bulgaria, if e-commerce might be restricted in some way and if it will be profitable for businesses. This will be achieved by examining the Internet penetration in Bulgaria, its future growth and other corresponding data and statistics. Advantages and Disadvantages as well as a SWOT analysis of e-commerce in will be discussed to evaluate the potential of it in the Bulgarian market. A brief description of the issue investigated The Internet is a global network connecting millions of computers. More than 100 countries are linked into exchanges of data, news and opinions. It exists since 1957 and was found by the Advanced Research Projects Agency of the US department of defense. In Bulgaria, Internet usage has grown significantly especially for the last seven or eight years, but it exists since 1989. It is mostly put into practice for communication and for searching of information. It has become a very useful tool, which is part of peoples daily lives not only in Bulgaria but also all over the world. Due to the ability of the Internet to reach a large number of people in all corners of the world, it has become a mean for electronic trading, also known as e-commerce. E-commerce is the trade of products and services by means of the Internet or other computer networks. E-commerce is very popular in developed countries. It exists since 1991 and since then has grown considerably. It has become a very convenient way to purchase goods and services online in the free time without wasting time to travel to difference stores and having 24-hour access. E-commerce exists in Bulgaria too, but it is still on a very low level even though the Internet has one of the greatest user growths in the European Union. In the period between 2000 and 2007 the Internet in Bulgaria has grown with 412 %. The fast user growth in Bulgaria and the large percentage of active users online is a great opportunity for Bulgarian businesses to reach a vast amount of customer online where they can start offering their products and services. This way they would not only reach more potential customers locally, but will also have the opportunity to expand abroad if demand spreads. Relevant Statistics for Bulgaria The Internet has become a retractable part of most households in Bulgaria. Surveillances show that the number of people who use Internet actively has increased by 100% for the last three years. Today, around 2Â  600Â  000 people, more that 33% of the population uses Internet at home and work. However, statistics also show that almost 80% of the population can have Internet access when needed. The main purpose it is used for is for communication, e.g. e-mail, chat and Internet calls and for searching of information, e.g. job search, current news. Despite the rapid growth of the quality of the Internet provided and the increase in Internet users, Bulgaria still is one of the countries with lowest positions for e-commerce. According to the National Statistical Institute, from 50% of the Internet users searching for goods and services online, only 7.6% have made a purchase. Thus every second Internet user has searched for goods online but did not find what they were looking for. Thirty thousand people have taken part in a survey done by Nielsen Online about the optimizing of online products. The research shows that 60% of the Internet users are aged between 18 and 35 and 22% of the participants have stated that they have income higher than 1000 levs. This is a relatively high salary for this country. The age range, which is predominant consisting of young people who tend to be high consumers. Young people who are still students, are very good at tormenting their parents for receiving what they want, on the other hand the ones who have graduated and have started working tend to spend their wages for satisfying their wants. Statistics also show that 2/3 of the Internet users are employed and the rest are mostly students. The main problem with online shopping for most Internet users is the threat of information theft, especially financial information. In computing it is known as phishing. Phising is an attempt to criminally and fraudulently acquire sensitive information, such as usernames, passwords and credit card details, by masquerading as a trustworthy entity in an electronic communication. Most like targets are online banks and e-commerce businesses that allow online payments like Paypal and E-Pay for Bulgaria. However statistics for E-Pay show that in 2008 transactions per month done through e-pay are on average between 10 and 11 million levs. This is a relatively high transaction rate for the country, but most of these transactions are done for paying bills other than for purchasing of goods. An advantage for online shopping in Bulgaria is that goods can be paid at the time of delivery, which is a way that people who are afraid to pay online would prefer. Products that are most often offered online in Bulgaria are books, office stationary and electronic devices (phones, cameras), which is a very limited offering of products. However, Bulgarian e-commerce should have a very promising future if it develops. For now in Bulgaria, most online shoppers rely on the e-commerce from abroad. Businesses in Bulgaria are missing on a great deal of potential customers due to the lapse of offering their products online. According to statistics of Visa International, during 2005 the volume of e-payments of Bulgarians with Visa in the Internet had increased with almost 100%. The total value of the online transactions made to virtual traders outside the country is 14.3 million US dollars. E-trade has a very good opportunity to grow in Bulgaria since the online users are constantly increasing and have the desire to explore new prospects that the internet might offer to them. Consumerism in Bulgaria is likely to increase rapidly too, due to the economical growth in the country, since its entrance in the EU. However Euro Stat has registered high inflation of 13.4% at the moment, which might slow down the economical growth. According to the European committee even slow the economic growth will continue in Bulgaria. An outline of the analysis undertaken According to the data show above the development of e-commerce in Bulgaria seems promising due to the combination of the following trends: Bulgaria has a high sample of potential of online customers, as 30% of its population use Internet actively and 80% can have Internet access when needed. People can have access at home, work and in public Internet cafes. 50% of the Internet users are interested in buying goods online. For 2005 Bulgarians have spend more than $14 million online, buying product from other countries. Most Internet users in Bulgaria are educated people with relatively high income. The economic state in Bulgaria is going to ameliorate in the future, which is a good base for the growth of consumerism. According to the SWOT analysis-undertaken e-commerce has a lot of strengths for both customers and business, which should be considered. E-trade is convenient for both because: It is fast as there is no need to go outside, travel, visit different shops and compare prices. Easy as the shopping can be done in the comfort of your own home with a few clicks. Cheap as the online offering of product can be less costly for businesses, which gives them the chance to offer more competitive prices for consumers. Consumers can choose from millions of products, which are all displayed on their computer. Businesses can online only sell their products by displaying them online, but also advertise them further, as consumers can easily find them. One disturbing weakness that has arisen in the Bulgarian e-trade was the legislation included in the Law for Protection of Consumer, which stated that the person who delivers the product doesnt have the right to receive payment in advance before the period of 7 days. This caused major difficulties for both buyers and sellers. Therefore a correction in the law followed, it stated that the person who delivers could take this payment with the consumers agreement. Maybe this law should be investigated further but for now existing e-commerce organisations do not have a problem doing their business online. More trends can be useful to examine the potential demand for e-commerce businesses. A research on what products Internet user would prefer to buy online, can help specific businesses balance their advantages and disadvantages for undertaking the step to sell online. Also some of the trends found might not be very realistic due to the small number of sample marketed. However over all if the economy in Bulgaria grows and people have more disposable income, e-commerce will be a success, as it will safe people time and money, and give profit to business. A discussion of the main findings From the findings above I can derive that e-commerce business has the potential to grow fast like it has grown in more developed countries all over the world. E-trade can offer companies the advantage of reaching their customers 24-7 and globally. Businesses can also diminish costs by advertising online for less and eliminating the need for large warehouse buildings for storing and displaying their stock. Another great advantage is the opportunity Internet gives for gaining a large number of contacts, which can lead to positive business developments and ventures. Word count: 1913 Reference: Dave Site (no date) History of Internet. Retrieved on 15 May 2008 from: (2008) One third of the Internet users are in Sofia. Retrieved on 16 May 2008 from: E-commerce land (no date) History of e-commerce. Retrieved on 15 May 2008 from: Econ (2008) Economic growth in our country will remain one of the highest in Europe. Retrieved on 16 May 2008 from: E-pay (2008) Statistics for payment in E-pay. Retrieved on 16 May 2008 from: E-shop BG (2003) E-trade in Bulgaria. Retrieved on 15 May 2008 from: EuroStat (2008) Newsletter. Retrieved on 16 May 2008 from: hHYPERLINK,46587259_dad=portal_schema=PORTALp_product_code=LN-042008ttp://,46587259HYPERLINK,46587259_dad=portal_schema=PORTALp_product_code=LN-042008HYPERLINK,46587259_dad=portal_schema=PORTALp_product_code=LN-042008_dad=portalHYPERLINK,46587259_dad=portal_schema=PORTALp_product_code=LN-042008HYPERLINK,46587259_dad=portal_schema=PORTALp_product_code=LN-042008_schema=PORTALHYPERLINK,46587259_dad=portal_schema=PORTALp_product_code=LN-042008HYPERLINK,46587259_dad=portal_schema=POR TALp_product_code=LN-042008p_product_code=LN-042008 Internet Reklama (2006) E-trade increases twice. Retrieved on 16 May 2008 from: Internet reklama (2007) 2.6 million internet users in Bulgaria. Retrieved on 15 May 2008 from: Internet reklama (2008) National Statistics Institute for Internet in Bulgaria. Retrieved on 15 May 2008 from: Internet reklama (2008) National Statistics Institute for Internet in Bulgaria. Retrieved on 15 May 2008 from: Internet reklama2 (2007) They resolved the advanced payments. Retrieved on 16 May 2008 from: Internet world stats (2008) European Union internet users. Retrieved on 15 May 2008 from: Sega (2008) One third of the Internet users are in Sofia. Retrieved on 16 May 2008 from: Timeline (no date) Internet history. Retrieved on 15 May 2008 from: Webopedia (no date) Internet. Retrieved on 15 May 2008 from: Wikipedia (no date) Phising. Retrieved on 16 May 2008 from: Zoom-Online (no date) What is e-commerce: advantages and draw backs. Retrieved on 15 May 2008 from: Appendices Appendix 1 InternetUsageintheEuropeanUnion EUROPEANHYPERLINK Population (2007Est.) InternetUsers, LatestData Penetration (%Population) Usage %inEU UserGrowth (2000-2007) Austria 8,199,783 4,650,000 56.7% 1.7% 121.4% Belgium 10,392,226 5,100,000 49.1% 1.9% 155.0% Bulgaria 7,322,858 2,200,000 30.0% 0.8% 411.6% Cyprus 788,457 356,000 45.2% 0.1% 197.2% CzechHYPERLINK 10,228,744 5,100,000 49.9% 1.9% 410.0% Denmark 5,468,120 3,762,500 68.8% 1.4% 92.9% Estonia 1,315,912 760,000 57.8% 0.3% 107.3% Finland 5,238,460 3,286,000 62.7% 1.2% 70.5% France 63,718,187 34,851,835 54.7% 12.8% 310.0% Germany 82,400,996 53,240,115 64.6% 19.5% 121.8% Greece 10,706,290 3,800,000 35.5% 1.4% 280.0% Hungary 9,956,108 3,500,000 35.2% 1.3% 389.5% Ireland 4,109,086 2,060,000 50.1% 0.8% 162.8% Italy 58,147,733 33,143,152 57.0% 12.1% 151.1% Latvia 2,259,810 1,070,800 47.4% 0.4% 613.9% Lithuania 3,575,439 1,221,700 34.2% 0.4% 443.0% Luxembourg 480,222 339,000 70.6% 0.1% 239.0% Malta 401,880 127,200 31.7% 0.0% 218.0% Netherlands 16,570,613 14,544,400 87.8% 5.3% 272.9% Poland 38,518,241 11,400,000 29.6% 4.2% 307.1% Portugal 10,642,836 7,782,760 73.1% 2.8% 211.3% Romania 22,276,056 7,000,000 31.4% 2.6% 775.0% Slovakia 5,447,502 2,500,000 45.9% 0.9% 284.6% Slovenia 2,009,245 1,250,000 62.2% 0.5% 316.9% Spain 40,448,191 22,843,915 56.5% 8.4% 324.0% Sweden 9,031,088 6,981,200 77.3% 2.6% 72.5% UnitedHYPERLINK 60,776,238 40,362,842 66.4% 14.8% 162.1% EuropeanUnion 490,430,321 273,234,619 55.7% 100.0% 189.5% Source: Internet world stats (2008) Malaysia S Transportation Sector: SWOT Analysis Malaysia S Transportation Sector: SWOT Analysis A scan of the internal and external environment is a main part of the strategic planning. Environmental factors internal to the firm generally can be classified as strength (S) or weakness (W) and those external to the firm can be classified as opportunities (O) or threats (T). Such an analysis of the strategic environment is referred to as SWOT analysis. STRENGTHS Malaysia is Multi-Racial Malaysia is a multi-racial, multi-ethnic society and opens to each one. The 3 main cultures, Malay, Chinese and Indian create an interesting Malaysian society yet still leave it open for other cultures to join and thrive. In Malaysia, you will experience the Malay, Chinese and Indian festivals, food, literature, clothing, religion and culture. Affordable Healthcare Healthcare in Malaysia is world-class and more affordable compared to the United States. Doctors and hospitals have the same standard or superior to American doctors and hospitals and care is world-renowned. Healthcare is good in Malaysia. It is one of the top destinations for medical tourism. In Malaysia, you can only visualize how good your healthcare options will be. Education Malaysias education system is mainly based on the British system and it is better than some other countries in the region such as Thailand, Vietnam and Cambodia. Compulsory subjects include English and Malay, so any children has to grow up fluent in both languages. Ease of Language English is the language spoken by most people in Malaysia. When a person moves to Malaysia, he does not have to suffer by the local language to get things done and the life becomes easier for them. Buying a house, a car, set up utilities, furniture and household items, everything is easier due to being able to deal with things in English. Good Infrastructure Malaysia has a world-class infrastructure and the Roads are excellent. The water supply, drain systems and power grids are stable and telecommunication including phones and internet are phenomenal. Living and Working in Malaysia for western expatriate is made even easier due to its western-standard infrastructure. OPPORTUNITIES Malaysias strong emerging economy is a preferred destination for foreign companies and a fertile ground for local businesses to flourish. In this thriving, business environment job opportunities are created to attract both local as well as foreign talents. There are huge opportunities here and it is often only a matter of getting the right working permit. For Non-Malaysians it is required to convince your potential employer that they help you to get the essential paper work completed in the case of applicable working permit, expatriates a full, a commitment that an employer may be reluctant to make until they are confident that the appointment is going to work out. In Malaysia there is a strong demand here for quality candidates with good qualifications and experience. Managerial positions in development, energy, business and engineering corporations are often the typical option for the relocated worker in Malaysia. The private education sector is excellent in Malaysia, with a number of reputed international institutions, diversified and extensive courses offering and high quality, internationally recognized standards, and featuring the British, German and French curricula as common options. When coming to the food industry of Malaysia, internationally aware individuals have been able to run fashionable, niche and successful activities combining gourmet cuisine, design, care for the details, and providing customers with an overall experiential moment. Malaysians inexhaustible passion for food and adventure have made food industry a vibrant sector. Hospitality, Tourism and management is also enjoying a renaissance in Malaysia by offering five-star stays while providing boutique and heritage experiences like nowhere else on Earth. National Chambers of Commerce in Malaysia give opportunity to connect with companies interested in hiring people with international expertise and experience. WEAKNESSES Lack of Medical Tourism: Strict guidelines implemented for medical advertisement. In Malaysia doctors are only allowed to put up ads with the following information- name, address, qualifications, and telephone numbers. The Medicines Advertisement Board in Malaysia must approve even websites of medical institutions. Thus the medical tourism industry of Malaysia lacks in impressive promotional activities and impressive websites. Inconvenient social visit pass process: The procedures for extension of the social visit pass in Malaysia are very inconvenience and can be very difficult. It is required to complete an application form and the applicant must submit it along with his/her passport and confirmed flight ticket to the home country personally. Obviously such requirements make it impossible to be fulfilled by a person admitted in a hospital, such as in the case of a medical tourist. Lack of coordination: Lack of a coordinated effort between airline operators, hotels and hospitals to promote the industry and lack of uniform pricing policies and standards across hospitals in Malaysia. Weak policy: Malaysian policy states that an individual entity is not permitted to transport an excess of 1,000 Ringgits outside of the country without government approval. While this act has not hindered trade, it has certainly weakened the credibility of the Negara Malaysia Bank (the countries national bank) as an international financier. Limited Profits to retailers: The low estimated cost of living is sustained by the Malaysian government through subsides on essential items, such as gasoline, bread, rice, etc. Prices on these items are kept well under market value which although good for the consumer hinders any further competitive pricing by retailers, thus limiting profit. Lacking in multimedia research development hub: Despite the creation of a world-class infrastructure, the government of Malaysia has not been successful in realizing its original aim of creating a cutting-edge multimedia research and development hub. Rising costs: For creating such a successful service industry around the world, Malaysia had to sacrifice other industries along the way. Malaysia is number three in the service industry. The increase in criminal activities related to this industry is causing a rise in the cost to prevent such crime. Favoritism for Malays: Roughly 65% of the population of Malaysia consists of Malays. Government perks favor Malays and other indigenous races to the determent of minorities, who provide a better level of economic activity. These factors have a long-term impact on the economy, by alienating minorities who contribute to economic growth. Those minorities are more likely to move to more favorable countries that value their expertise and economic contributions. Discriminatory Policies in Economy: The discrimination issues the government maintains in Malaysia over non-Malays, is an economic concern. Despite some improvement in the economic power of Malay people, the Malaysian government maintains a policy of discrimination favoring ethnic Malays over other races-including preferential treatment in education, employment, business, scholarships, access to cheaper housing and assisted savings. This special kind of treatment has sparked envy and resentment between Malays and Non- Malays. Discrimination issues tend to provoke conflict between the groups involved in the discriminatory practices. Commerce between the two groups may decrease, which may cause a decrease in overall economic activity. Discrimination also limits human capital when available to do certain jobs. Limitations in general lead to less efficient uses of natural or human resources in an economy. Critical level of Corruption: Corruption in Malaysia has reached a critical level as the country falls in international rankings, a graft watchdog announced warning the government to act or lose its competitiveness. The UNs Asia-Pacific Human Development Report highlighted an International Country Risk Guide finding which saw Malaysia decline from a score of 4.00 in year 1996 to 2.38 in year 2006, with a lower score showing greater corruption. Corrupt political systems tend to weaken economic growth, because they indirectly charge additional taxes on the economy. Every payment to a corrupt officer to obtain a service is considered a tax. The more taxes on a economic system, the lower economic growth, because resources are shifted away from highly efficient parts of the economy to less efficient and corrupt parts of the economy. Threats Malaysia, being a trading nation that highly dependent on international trade, the economic performance is very vulnerable to the performance of the major international trading partners. For decades, the economic growth has been overly reliant on international trade, external sector developments and foreign direct investment (FDI). In view of the challenges that arise from the globalization effects, it is important for the Malaysian Government to sustain growth and strengthen the macro-economic fundamentals within the country. This can be done by focusing on domestic business and industrial activities and increasing the purchasing power of our population. The governments corporate reforms and fiscal policies have to be continued to create a condition suitable for a speedy recovery and sustainable growth. It is also important to ensure that the restructured loans remain performing. Importance must be placed on continuing improvements on transparency, corporate governance and strict enforcement of powers by the market regulators. The country also needs to maintain its peaceful environment and security to secure the investors confidence. Currently, most of exports of Malaysia are for the United States. Thus, the successful recovery of the US economy is pivotal to Malaysias continuing recovery. Due to current stagnation in the US economy, the electronic chip industry is a damper on economic recovery in Malaysia where electronics related exports make up more than 30% of the gross domestic product. River pollution: Pollution is one the largest threats to the rivers. The reduction in river water quality is a clear indicator of the decline in the environmental health of a river basin. Palm Oil Production Destroys Forest: Environmental group protests are making it difficult to expand production of palm oil plantations, so firms have to slow their growth and discover a new, more sustainable, method to increase Palm Oil. Threats and boycotts will lead to less demand for products containing palm oil, which will hurt the price of palm oil as a commodity. Swine Flu Virus: Swine flu (the H1N1 virus) is added to the list of potential threats. Malaysia have downgraded their forecast for tourist arrivals accordingly. Malaysia reported its first fatal case of swine flu with the death of an Indonesian student, officials. The 30-year-old man, who was diagnosed with the H1N1 virus, died from cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation. TRANSPORTATION SECTOR In Malaysia transport was started developing during British colonial rule, and its transport network is now developed and diverse. Malaysias road system begun during British colonization and it covers about 63,445 km. The main highway that reaches the Thai border from Singapore covers a distance of over 800 km. Within the city, the Light Rail Transit (LRT) is available to help meet Malaysias need for mobility that is reliable, safe, comfortable and predictable. Peninsular Malaysia have high quality network of roads, while the East Malaysian road system is not as well developed. In Peninsular Malaysia the main modes of transport are trains, buses, cars and to an extent airplanes. Malaysias small railway system is less significant than its roads and is confined primarily to the peninsula, where it runs from the southern tip (where it is connected to Singapore) northward to the border with Thailand. Malaysias first light-rail transport was started in Kuala Lumpur in 1996. After that, several monorail and express lines have opened in the Kuala Lumpur metropolitan area. In East Malaysia and especially in Sarawak river transport is of great importance. In addition, Malaysias accessible and long coastlines have fostered maritime trade for more than a millennium. Several ports, notably Penang on the Strait of Malacca and Port Kelang (the principal port) have become major container-handling facilities. Air transport has grown very rapidly as the passenger traffic has increased especially on the peninsula. Almost all Malaysian states are connected with an internal air network. Airports in Kota Kinabalu, Penang and Kuching have limited international service. LAND TRANSPORT Roads Malaysias road network covers 98,721 kilometers , of which 80,280 kilometers is paved, and 1,821 kilometers is expressways. The longest highway the North-South Expressway of the country extends over 800 kilometers between the Singapore and Thai border. Trains The inter city, countrywide, traditional KTMB rail network and the inner city, light rail transit network are the two types of train network in Malaysia. The KTMB service serves the entire country of Malaysia by travelling between major cities and also up into Thailand. Railways The railway system covers a total of 1,849 kilometers (1,149 mi). 1,792 kilometers (1,113 mi) of it is narrow gauge, while 57 kilometers (35 mi) is standard gauge. 150 kilometers (93 mi) of narrow gauge tracks and all the standard gauge tracks are electrified. Elevated Light Rail Transit systems are used in some cities such as Kuala Lumpur which are relatively inexpensive. MY Rapid is a company that runs the main public transportation system in KL. They provide Monorail, Putra and Star LRT and RapidKL buses. Buses: For travel between Singapore, Penang and KL, the services of coach in Malaysia are difficult to beat. Fares are well priced at roughly RM 50 RM 60 for KL-Penang and just under RM 100 for luxury coaches from KL-Singapore. The best services also provide drink, food and entertainment for the journey. Buying tickets in Malaysia works out much cheaper than buying them in Singapore. Therefore, if it needs travelling from KL to Singapore and back again, surely purchase a return ticket from the Malaysian side. The buses offer pre-recorded commentary in eight different languages and stop at 22 designated stops around the city. Taxis Drivers very well know very well the city geography and are able to find shortcuts when the inevitable traffic builds up. It is compulsory for taxi drivers to use their built-in meter to calculate the fare. Flag-off fare is RM3 with an additional 10 cents for every 115 meters thereafter. The taxis caught in a traffic jam charge the fare RM3 for the first three minutes and 10 cents for every subsequent 21 seconds. Penang Rickshaw, Penang: In Penang, locals called their rickshaw as Beca in Malay language. Most locals are taking buses and taxi in the island. Due to modern infrastructure the number of rickshaws in the city is reducing. All of these rickshaws have special permit from the government. Currently, Penang has less than 200 rickshaws on its streets mainly to ride tourists to nearby attractions within the city. WATER TRANSPORT Waterways Malaysia has 7,200 kilometers (4,474 mi) of waterways, most of them rivers. Of this, 3,200 kilometers (1,988 mi) are in Peninsular Malaysia, 2500 kilometers (1553 mi) are in Sarawak and 1,500 kilometers (932 mi) are in Sabah. Information on Sea Transportation Many popular island destinations like Pangkor, Langkawi, Tioman and Redang are linked to the mainland by ferry services and other smaller islands are accessible by fishing boats, which may be chartered. Ferry services are also available from Belungkor, Tanjung, Desaru, Kukup, Johor Bahru Duty Free Zone and Sebana Cove (all in Johor) to the neighboring islands in the south and from Butterworth to Penang. There are a number of cruise liners which call on Malaysian ports. One of which, Star Cruises is Malaysian-owned and operated. Ports and harbors This is a list of Malaysian ports and harbors: Bintulu Kota Kinabalu Kuantan Kemaman Kuching Kudat Labuan Lahad Datu Lumut Miri Pasir Gudang George Town, Penang Port Dickson Port Klang Sandakan Sibu Tanjung Berhala Tanjung Kidurong Tawau Tanjung Pelepas Ferry: The ferries carry light vehicles on bottom deck and pedestrian on top level. The bottom is shared by 4 wheelers and two wheelers. The cars onboard the ferry occupy the front part followed by the motorcycles. The ferry has 2 toilets for male and female and one mini counter selling snacks and drinks on the upper level. Pipelines: Malaysia has 3 kilometers (2 mi) of condensate pipeline, 1,965 kilometers (1,221 mi) of gas pipeline, 31 kilometers (19 mi) of oil pipeline, and 114 kilometers (71 mi) of refined products pipelines. AIR TRANSPORT In Malaysia, airlines are separated into two 1) Passenger airlines 2) Cargo airlines. The Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA) is well known in the region and is known as one of the more modern airports in the world. With other international airports in Kota Kinabalu, Kuching and Penang, domestic airports are also available in Malaysia. Also a Low Cost Carrier Terminal (LCCT) is designed specifically for low cost carriers by KLIA and it is located 20km from the main terminal. Air Asia is the most popular budget airline in Asia and is based in Malaysia. Air Asia flies to many locations regionally and also domestically. Air transport is crucial for the distribution of high value to weight products. Air freight may only account for 0.5% of the tons of global trade with the rest of the world, but it makes up around 34.6% of the total in terms of value. Shippers pay airlines MYR 8.0 billion annually to carry 805,000 tons of freight to, from and within Malaysia. The benefit to the shippers is estimated as MYR 3.3 billion in excess of this expenditure. Based on these share of exports Malaysian shippers receive over half of this benefit (MYR 1.9 billion). Malaysia Airlines currently flies to many places worldwide and provides access to other states within both East Malaysia and Peninsular Malaysia.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

The Crime Prevention Triangle Explination Criminology Essay

The Crime Prevention Triangle Explination Criminology Essay In this unit, we will explore specific and general crime prevention approaches and strategies, employed to reduce and control the occurrence of crime in the society. The role of the citizen and the community will be differentiated from the role of the state through the institutions of the criminal justice system. Unit Objectives To appreciate the need for citizen participation. To discuss the role of the Police. To describe the role of Policy Makers. To examine the methods used by the criminal justice system to influence reform and rehabilitation. To analyze at least four approaches to crime prevention employed by the criminal justice system. Readings and Online Resources Reid, Oral (1998) Community Policing: A Philosophical Approach to the Study of Community Building. Reid, Oral. Policing by Consent. The Copper 97 Vol. 1 No. 1 Session 4.1 Community Crime Prevention Approaches Learning Objectives: By the end if this session the student should be able to: Define the elements of the crime prevention triangle Discuss the elements of the crime prevention triangle Describe the crime prevention triangle Define the roles of the elements in the crime prevention triangle Discuss the participation of the elements in the crime prevention triangle Understand the need for citizen participation. Appreciate the role of individual and community groups in the prevention of crime. Explain the need for the Crime Prevention Practitioners in building a community team Introduction In this session we will examine specific crime prevention approaches intended to highlight the critical role of the citizen, the police and policymakers in their effort to address crime control or reduction both at the local level of the community and the state in general. The Crime Prevention Triangle Figure 4:1 The Community Crime Prevention Triangle Effective crime prevention requires a closer relationship between the police, policy makers, and the community at large. It is necessary for all sides to open lines of communication and work to define their respective roles in such a way that they understand their responsibilities to the overall cooperative effort. The task of bringing these key sectors of the community together is not easy neither can one be effective without the other. The challenge is often that each sector has specific viewpoints that appear to be inconsistent with the needs and expectations of others in the triangle. For instance, the police have traditionally been one of the most closed groups in Caribbean society. This position has been influenced by several factors among which are the following; Police Forces in the region boost a paramilitary in structure; Many of the social and professional problems they encounter cannot be discussed with persons outside their profession; and the nature of police work frequently confines them to persons working within their respective formations. The factors listed all support a growing trend towards police isolation from the people they are intended to serve. On the other hand, most citizens have very limited knowledge of police work. Such views are often further distorted by television programmes that suggest glamorous and unrealistic means of solving crimes and social disorder. Hence a typical citizens impression of the police is associated with issuing traffic tickets, or arresting felons. The citizen is not likely to be in a pleasant mood in either of these circumstances, and frequently learns to associate officers with enforcement and authority. The police spend most of their time dealing with the less desirable elements of Caribbean society inasmuch as they deal with suspects and vagrants on a regular basis, and sometimes tend to associate the uncooperative behaviour of these elements with the general public. It is not uncommon for the police to threat with suspicion volunteers who want to aid in the management of crime. Politicians or policymakers are given labels that hold them up to public scrutiny and ridicule. Views expressed during heated campaigns or unrealistic expectations by the public that an official has the power to wave a magic wand and cure the ills of society have served to strain the relationship between the elected officials and their constituents. All of the above realities show that each side of the triangle has an important part to play in the community crime prevention process but that there are challenges which, if not carefully managed could deepen the divide between each sector. The strength of a triangle depends on strong linkages. If one of these three groups does not participate, the chances for success will be seriously diminished. Defining the Roles in the Crime Prevention Triangle Citizen and Community Participation The need for citizen participation in community crime prevention is critical to the establishment of a crime-free society. Two essential ingredients are a well-trained police force and an informed and cooperative citizenry. It is often the case that too few citizens have made a commitment to actually participation. Participation in community crime prevention efforts is not merely desirable but necessary. Police and crime prevention specialists alone cannot control crime; they need all the help the community can give them. Despite the later there seems to be an irreversible trend, in recent years, towards less involvement by citizens and increased responsibilities being delegated to the police. Increased specialization in various police forces coupled with increased taxation has encouraged citizens to look to the police, as professionals, to assume the responsibility of community safety. Subsequently, calls for service to the average law enforcement agency have increased steadily as citizens looked for assistance, not only with criminal matters but also for a wide range of service endeavours, such as invitations to speak to the wayward boy or girl that failed to comply with house rules, retrieving trapped cats and dogs and transporting mental patients to the hospital for treatment. It would be r easonable to assume that as much as 80 percent of police calls relate to noncriminal conduct as opposed to actual investigation or the apprehension of criminals. Community ranges from isolated individuals to diverse community groups. The levels of expertise vary from novice to accomplished professionals. The motivation to participate is as diverse as the community itself. Yet the secret to changing public attitudes and ultimately behaviour lies within this vast and primarily untapped resource. The following are various levels of involvement in crime prevention efforts with which citizens feel comfortable and choose to identify. It is helpful to first look at the role an individual can play, and then expand the base for involvement to group roles or collective citizen action. The Role of the Individual Practitioners know that a vast majority of a communitys population does not belong to an identifiable group but still participates in a wide range of activities. These citizens have concerns regarding crime and should be reached and encouraged to participate in crime prevention programmes as individuals. A few of the ways an individual can participate include: 1. Contributing volunteer time to programme efforts 2. Being an advocate for crime prevention concepts 3. Reporting suspicious activities to the police 4. Taking initiatives to practice opportunity reduction strategies at home/work and while moving about the community, such as: a. installing secure, deadbolt locks b. providing good security lighting c. trimming shrubbery away from doors and windows d. always locking car doors and windows e. using common sense and awareness when traveling alone f. marking all valuables with a personal identification number g. not carrying or displaying large amount of cash h. avoiding walking alone after dark Activity: Crime Prevention Tips View the Youtube videos below, they offer some useful crime prevention tips for individuals Activity 4:1 Collective Citizen and Group Roles: The communitys role is strengthened when group initiatives are added to individual citizen initiatives. If Crime prevention is to be effective in improving quality of life, the role of the community-at-large must be expanded to include supportive efforts from a broad base of existing private sector groups-businesses, industries, churches, etc. within a jurisdiction. Organized groups such as the Chamber of Commerce, P.T.A., Scouts, Girls Guides, Kiwanis, Womens Clubs, and Church Groups lend their support to community crime prevention programming and bring with them an existing pool of volunteer time, talent, energy, and the additional clout and resources of established organizations. They also bring with them the organizational goals, policies, and procedures, resolutions on community issues, and reputation that may or may not precisely fit everyone elses agenda. The role these groups must play is sometimes difficult to define and mobilize, and always difficult to manage. Yet it is vitally important to reach and involve citizens within their own context. The task is to reach people where they are and with the tools they are accustomed to using. This does not simply mean that everyone has to join Neighbourhood Watch Programmes. It does mean that every citizen can participate in crime prevention doing whatever a citizen is a part of-Boys Clubs, a tenants organization, the insurance industry etc. The trick to citizen involvement is to provide them hope within their own familiar environments. The experiences gained in community crime prevention programmes across the Caribbean region have helped define the following points in the community-at- large role: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ The community at large must accept the responsibility for organizing a community crime prevention programme. They have the biggest stake-and ultimately they have more to lose than either the law enforcement or policymaker segments. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ The community must identify committed leadership for an organized crime prevention effort. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ The community must provide the necessary resources (time and funds) for the leadership to receive basic crime prevention training. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ The community must plan organized training for other volunteers in the program. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ The citizens must identify the problems of the community through cooperative efforts with law enforcement agencies, using such tools as surveys, opinion polls, and actual crime data. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ The members of the community must plan a coordinated approach to crime prevention efforts by designing and matching projects to the interests of various volunteer groups. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ The leaders must establish an effective mechanism for outreach and input so various groups know what others are doing. This will help ensure coordination, and is frequently termed networking. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ The community group must solicit commitments from various groups supporting crime prevention efforts to ensure programme continuity. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ The group organizers must provide opportunities for all groups or individuals to participate in the community-wide programmes (while allowing groups to retain their separate identity). à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ The group organizers must establish an ongoing process of obtaining and assessing project information for evaluation purposes to aid further decision-making. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ The organizers must identify and obtain resources to properly fund a sustained crime prevention effort. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ The leaders of the crime prevention unit must facilitate the wise use of collective citizen power to influence public policies that promote crime prevention concepts. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ The community group must serve as a strong advocate for increased communication between the various segments forming the crime prevention triangle. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ The groups must ensure the participation of the media as a partner in the total community crime prevention programme. Community volunteers have learnt much about their role in crime prevention during the last decade. Their role will become even more clearly defined through the next decade as volunteers acquire additional knowledge in organizing and maintaining community crime prevention programmes. Police Participation The attitudes of the citizens towards the police service are generally inconsistent. The police are appreciated when they are needed but often feared because they are perceived as the states representatives of power and authority. The reality is that only rarely is the real nature of the police service broadcast and very rarely is the man inside the uniform understood or known. Yet we understand his role to be critical. What is generally agreed is that when faced with trouble, people expect quick police response and victims want and expect the effective service of a professional. Based on the wide range of service demands there is little wonder that both citizens and police alike are sometimes unclear about the definition of the role of the police in the prevention rather than the detection of crime. The following points are essential: The police are not separate from the people. They draw their authority from the will and consent of the people. The police are the state appointed instruments through which citizens can achieve and maintain public order. Police officers are decision makers and often decide whether to arrest, to make a referral, to seek prosecution, or to use force. Police officers are just as accountable for their decisions as the magistrate or judge is for decisions deliberated for months. The police officer must understand complex cultural and social problems and relationships to be efficient and effective. A police officer is a part of and not apart from: a. The community served b. The criminal justice system that determines what course society will pursue to deter lawbreakers or rehabilitate offenders in the interest of public order c. The government that provides the formal base of authority. The police officer initiates the criminal justice process through arrest of suspects and can be held accountable where they fail to take action. The police are the criminal justice element in closest contact with the public (and therefore are frequently blamed for failures in other parts of the system). The police are helpless to control crime without the cooperation of a substantial portion of the people. The role of the police thus becomes: to anticipate that crime will occur when risks are high, to recognize when a high-crime risk exists to appraise the seriousness of the particular risk to initiate action to remove or reduce the risk. Educational, technical and supportive resource- an enabler rather than a primary doer. The police role in crime prevention strategies should: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Utilize the patrol function to create and maintain efforts to identify and arrest suspects à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Serve as a source for public information and training regarding crime prevention programs à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Coordinate crime prevention activities in their respective jurisdictions à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Share information with the public gathered through police data analysis capabilities concerning the kinds of crime and the methods being used by perpetrators against citizens à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Take initiative to develop organized crime prevention functions within each department Policymakers Participation Many earlier efforts to establish crime prevention programmes carefully skirted the issues of assessing the role of the public sector or seeking to involve the policymakers. This hesitancy was brought about in part because notions of crime prevention were seen as new and untested and hadnt been accepted as a viable response to long-standing social and economic problems. Very few programmes have been able to document specific successes in actually demonstrating a reduction of crime. Additionally, some communities had experiences with receiving political support for crime prevention programmes during the course of a political election, only to be quietly swept under the rug when elections were over and the difficult job of meeting budgets was underway in the face of declining resources. Slowly, isolated experiences surfaced that demonstrated a positive relationship between renew citizen participation in crime prevention/opportunity reduction programmes and a lower residential burglary or vandalism rate in neighbourhoods. Policymakers were willing to take a closer look. Such closer scrutiny led in Barbados to the establishment of the National Task Force on Crime Prevention in June 1996. This agency collaborates with the Royal Barbados Police Force on the analysis of national crime statistics and initiate programmes aimed at reducing crime in selected residential communities. In 1968 in the United States of America, Congress established a legislative priority and provided monetary resources to jurisdictions for mounting crime prevention efforts and funded them through the Justice Department Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA). Activity: A Caribbean Perspective The aforementioned has been the American experience. Can you think of ways this approach can be adapted to match the Caribbean reality appropriate for your country. Post your suggestions in the discussion forum and react to suggestions posed by your classmates. Activity 4:2 As a result of this increased interest by officials in the public sector and the interaction within communities, there is now a more clearly defined role of the policymakers in the community crime prevention process. Practitioners are confident that this role will continue to evolve and clarify over time, but for the present, I offer the following points on the role of the policymaker: 1. Provides leadership in setting public policy that establishes a jurisdiction-wide crime prevention programme. 2. Encourages coordination and cooperation between government agencies to maximize existing resources and avoid duplication of efforts. 3. Develops and adopts building security codes. 4. Actively promotes opportunity reduction practices for public owned properties, such as: a. marking all valuables with property identification numbers b. providing adequate, security lighting c. installing deadbolt locking devices 5. Promotes crime prevention education and training for employees within the public sector. 6. Provides financial support for crime prevention programmes. 7. Publicly supports crime prevention programmes to encourage other groups and individuals to participate. 8. Designates a permanent public agency to serve as an organizational base for crime Prevention programmes. 9. Demonstrates a long-term commitment to crime prevention by passing a formal resolution to sanction the crime prevention programme. 10. Requires accountability of programme efforts. The Crime Prevention Practitioner: Building a Community Team Even after the various elements within a community have a basic understanding of their role and responsibilities in a community crime prevention effort, there still remains vital work to be done in order to establish a promising crime prevention programme in a community. Much effort has been virtually wasted in the past as various groups go about well-meaning attempts to establish programmes for prevention without a coordinated approach. Likewise, a community crime prevention team doesnt just happen. The various elements that exist in your community must be linked together before any game plan can be written. This task requires specific attention. One or more individuals must be identified to play the coaching role and to mold representatives from various sides of the triangle into a working team. These specialists are called crime prevention practitioners. Who are they and what do they do? Practitioners across the country represent a wide cross-section of our population. Some are criminal justice professionals, some are elected officials. Many are business people, school teachers, or civic club volunteers. Crime prevention practitioners sometimes volunteer while others arc elected. In either case, they play a significant role in the community crime prevention process. A profile of successful practitioners would include: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ willingness to contribute a significant amount of time to crime prevention efforts à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ the enthusiasm to motivate others à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ a basic knowledge of the criminal justice system à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ a comprehensive understanding of the concepts of crime prevention and the ability to teach and advise others . . à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ capability of assessing skills and resources within the community à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ the ability to relate to all interested groups and match these interests to the overall program effort à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ the expertise to facilitate links that achieve a coordinated approach to programming à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ good organizational skills à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ an understanding of the nature of the political process and the guidance that enables public support to be translated through decision-makers into public policy Above all, the successful practitioner will possess two primary attributes: COMMITMENT to the cause, and the PERSISTENCE to continue the commitment over time in the face of obstacles that are sure to arise. Activity: Mini Investigation Identify and categorize the crime prevention practitioners in your territory. Report your findings to the course coordinator or tutor. Activity 4:3 Summary: In this session we have examined specific crime prevention strategies focused around the crime prevention triangle. In this session we highlighted the critical roles of individuals as a sub-sect of organizations, at one end of the continuum and the community as whole. The role of the police, and policy makers were also highlighted as essential to the construction of good crime prevention policy and practice. In the next session we will look at the role of the criminal justice system in the control of crime and acts of unsocial behaviour.