Monday, September 30, 2019
Movie Analysis: Girl, Interrupted. Brittany Clontz Nursing 114 Girl interrupted is a gripping tale of a girlÃ¢â¬â¢s maladaptation to the challenges of life. The movie focuses on a young girl named Suzanna Kaysen growing up in the 1960s and struggling with the world around her. Suzanna is admitted to Clarmoore institution after she consumes a whole bottle of aspirin and alcohol to deal with her pain. When admitted to Clarmoore she claims she was not trying to commit suicide, but that she just had a headache. She is overwhelmed and apprehensive as she enters the institution and observes the people around her .Suzanna is quickly introduced to many patients, including her roommate, a pathological liar named Georgina. Polly, a woman who burned herself as a child in attempts to remove the rash she was receiving from her dog so she would not have to part with him. Down the hall from Suzanna is Daisy, a girl suffering from various mental illnesses stemming from her over intimate relationsh ip with her father. The most whirlwind introduction is the arrival of Lisa, a sociopath returning from her most recent escape from the hospital.Suzanna is immediately intimidated by Lisa and her sociopathic ways. It is Suzanna first mediated apt with her very self-indulgent parents that her diagnosis is revealed. Suzanna is taking aback by the doctors words, borderline personality disorder. Suzanna exhibits her defiance and affirms the doctorÃ¢â¬â¢s diagnosis by becoming a side kick to LisaÃ¢â¬â¢s maniac ways. Suzanna becomes an accomplice to Drugging a nurse to steal music supplies to cheer up Polly, breaking into the doctorÃ¢â¬â¢s office to view her medical records, and being noncompliant with her medications.Following LisaÃ¢â¬â¢s return from her most recent treatment for a maniac episode Suzanna reveals her true dependence on Lisa by following Lisa in her escape from the institution. Lisa has planned for them to stop by the new house DaisyÃ¢â¬â¢s dad bought her when she got released, then head to Florida to work at the new Disney world. When they arrive at DaisyÃ¢â¬â¢s, Lisa further reveals her manipulative disorder by pushing daisy about her dad, how she is not recovered and pulling up DaisyÃ¢â¬â¢s sleeve revealing the cut marks along her forearms.The next morning Suzanna goes upstairs to find LisaÃ¢â¬â¢s twisted words had pushed daisy over the edge and she hung herself. Suzanna is devastated at the sight and the fact that list doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t seem supposed. She finally realizes she has been under LisaÃ¢â¬â¢s spell and she will never recover this way. So while Lisa runs, Suzanna lets the doctor take her back to the intuition and focuses on her recovery. SuzannaÃ¢â¬â¢s return marks a change in the movie and she makes great strides towards recovering.. The day before her release, the one women who could tear it all down returns.At the sound of commotion Suzanna looks out the window to see Lisa being brought in by an officer. That night Lis a steals Suzanna journal and reads aloud all her private thoughts, including remarks about the other patients Suzanna had befriended. When Suzanna hears her reading her private thoughts it seems Lisa may get her wish and tear all Suzanna progress apart. But in a twist so revealing of her recovery, Suzanna stands up to Lisa and tells her she is the one who needs help and she is dead inside.It is this action of wanting to be out in the real world and standing up to this women who she has let control her that shows the strides she has made. SuzannaÃ¢â¬â¢s final departure is not a bitter one, it seems she has made a difference in every patient there and is ready to begin her new life, with her new diagnosis, borderline personality disorder, recovered. In my opinion this movie uses the main character, Suzanna, to illustrate the various ways a mental illness may present.SuzannaÃ¢â¬â¢s chart states Ã¢â¬Å" Psychoneurotic Depressive reaction, highly intelligent, but in denial of her con dition and person pattern disturbance ,resistant, sixed type, r/o undifferential schizophrenia. Diagnosis: Borderline Personality Disorder. Ã¢â¬ This diagnosis seems quite confusing if you donÃ¢â¬â¢t know the characteristics of a person with borderline personality disorder. Because in all honesty at first it just seems Suzanna is a young girl, growing up in a rough era and just struggling to cope. But this struggle to cope and maladaptation to the stressors in her life are the triggers to her illness and her attempt at suicide .According to Townsend Borderline Personality disorder is described as Ã¢â¬Å" A pattern of intense and chaotic relationships, with affective instability and fluctuating attitudes toward other people. These individuals are impulsive, are directly and indirectly self-destructive, and lack a clear sense of identity. Ã¢â¬ (Townsend, 2011, Pg. 569) This is a broad definition but even at first glance I can pick out some of the behaviors Suzanna exhibited in this movie. Suzanna exhibited intense relationships with men, and she developed a very intense and beyond chaotic with the other patient on the ward, Lisa.She exhibited constant acts of impulse and instead of coming up with these acts on her own, they were often thought out by Lisa and Suzanna just followed. This consistent following of Lisa and lack of personal decision making clearly revealed SuzannaÃ¢â¬â¢s devoid sense of a clear identity. According to the DSM IV a person suffering from Borderline Personality Disorder exhibits five or more of the following nine criterions. 1) Frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment. 2) A pattern of unstable and intense interpersonal relationships characterized by alternating between extremes of idealization and devaluation. ) Identity disturbance: markedly and persistently unstable self-image or sense of self. 4) Impulsivity in at least two areas that are potentially self-damaging (e. g. , spending, sex, substance abuse, reckless driving, binge eating). 5) Recurrent suicidal behavior, gestures, or threats, or self-mutilating behavior***. 6) Affective [mood] instability. 7) Chronic feelings of emptiness. 8) Inappropriate, intense anger or difficulty controlling anger (e. g. , frequent displays of temper, constant anger, recurrent physical fights). 9) Transient, stress-related paranoid ideation or severe dissociative symptoms. (NAMI)Suzanna exhibits many of these symptoms throughout the film. A few very evident symptoms are her uncertainty about her identity that leads to her dependence on others and her impulsivity and self-damaging behaviors. On admission she seems to have a clear understanding of whatÃ¢â¬â¢s right and wrong but is in denial of why she is there, yet by the middle of the movie she is throwing her beliefs and values to the wind and participating in LisaÃ¢â¬â¢s schemes. She becomes very codependent on Lisa and when Lisa is transferred to another ward after the drug a nurse and steal music equipment, Suzanna spirals into a different person.Suzanna becomes defiant, refuses to get out of bed and becomes easily angered. Her main thought is where is Lisa and when is she coming back. This demonstrates her lack of her own identity, without Lisa she is back to being confused about her life. Suzanna not only shows impulsivity with her actions with lisa, she shows impulsive sexual tendencies as well. Before her admission she was having sex with a married man who was a friend of her family. She also has a relationship with a man named toby who she met at a party after high school.When toby surprises her at the institution her first actions toward him are sexual advances. He takes her outside and says he is going to Canada to avoid the draft and that she is going with him. She tells him she is not living and admits to trying to kill herself. That evening she starts kissing a male orderly she knows is very fond of her. Her sexual tendencies are clearly self-destructive and they s how how every relationship is completely lacking emotion. SuzannaÃ¢â¬â¢s diagnosis of Borderline Personality disorder has no certain cause but several risk factors have been identified.Genetic, family and social factors all play a role in the development of Borderline Personality Disorder. SuzannaÃ¢â¬â¢s mother clearly has some mental issues of her own although a diagnosis is not ultimately stated in the movie. Borderline personality disorder is also more common in women than men. SuzannaÃ¢â¬â¢s parent also show little regard for her condition and seemed to be more concerned about keeping up appearances. All these factors and the little to no communication with her family can account for factors that may have contributed to the development of her mental illnesses.Borderline Personality disorder is diagnosed through a psychological evaluation and assessment of risk factors. In the movie SuzannaÃ¢â¬â¢s doctor is fairly quick to give her the diagnosis of Borderline Personality disorder after very few visits with her. Although throughout the movie SuzannaÃ¢â¬â¢s actions give evidence to her diagnosis. Common treatment for Borderline Personality Disorder consists of medication therapy to stabilize mood, decrease impulsivity and help the patient develop a more logical way of thinking.Psychotherapy is used in combination with these medications and patients usually participate in therapy sessions several times a week. SuzannaÃ¢â¬â¢s treatment plan was not quite evident until the end of the movie when she finally opened herself up to the possibility of recovery. Although the medication names were not stated she received medication therapy along with therapy sessions with the Dr. Wick two to three times a week. Suzanna also used expressive therapy during her treatment. She wrote down her thoughts in a journal in order to clear her head and participated in expressive art.One aspect that contributed to her recovery that is not presented is how the other patien ts affected her. LisaÃ¢â¬â¢s actions were the most influential on her in the beginning but in the end she develops the ability to stand up to Lisa. DaisyÃ¢â¬â¢s suicide also played a big factor in her recovery, she realized you canÃ¢â¬â¢t want to die, but once Death is staring you in the face your perception of the world changes a little bit. Girl Interrupted is an eye opener to several regarding several different mental illnesses. By the end of this movie the stigma of mental illness and an institution is gone and replaced by an accepting attitude.The main character Suzanna paints a picture of the various ways mental illness may present itself, but also that management and recovery of mental illness is attainable. References Encyclopedia, A. (2010, November 15th). PubMed Health. Retrieved September 1st, 2012, from Borderline Personaility Disorder: http://www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001931/ NAMI. (n. d. ). Mental Illnesses: Borderline Personality Disorder. Retrie ved September 2nd, 2012, from National Alliance On Mental Health: http://www. nami. org/Template. cfm? Section=By_Illness&Template=/TaggedPage/TaggedPageDisplay. fm&TPLID=54&ContentID=44780 Townsend, M. C. (2011). Essentiasl of Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing fifth edition. Philadelphia: F. A Davis Company. Borderline Personality Disorder Treatment through Psychotherapy What is Psychotherapy? Psychotherapy is the first line of preferred treatment for patients with borderline personality disorder. Psychotherapy is a one on one or group interaction with a therapist to address symptoms that occur with Borderline Personality Disorder. The most important factor in psychotherapy is developing a trusting bond with you therapist.When a trusting relationship is established between patient and therapist, research shows Psychotherapy can relieve some symptoms of Borderline Personality Disorder. Types of Psychotherapy Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: This type of therapy can help identify and re lieve beliefs and behaviors that cause inaccurate perception of themselves. This type of therapy can help reduce mood swings, control anxiety and can be helpful in reducing suicidal behaviors. Dialectical Behavior Therapy: This type of therapy focuses on being attentive and aware of the current situation.The therapist teaches skills to help control overwhelming emotions and reduce self-destructive behaviors. This therapy is also helpful in helping clients improve relationships. Schema-focused Therapy: This therapy stems from the idea that borderline Personality Disorder stems from a personÃ¢â¬â¢s dysfunctional self-image. Therapy combines several different types of psychotherapy to help change a personÃ¢â¬â¢s self-image. This therapy is helpful in helping people interact with others; react appropriately to their environment and proper coping methods to problems and stress. Plan of Care for: Susanna KaysenNursing Diagnosis: Ineffective Coping Risk Factors: Lack of impulse control , Anxiety, Denial of mental illness NOC Outcomes (Nursing Outcomes Classification) Client will verbally express feelings and actively participate in learning coping strategies. Therapeutic Interventions * Encourage Client to participate in constructive outlets to address feelings. ( writing ,painting ,etc) * Provide the client with positive feedback. * Teach effective coping strategies. * Discuss clients diagnosis and address questions regarding diagnosis. Nursing Diagnosis: Personal Identity DisturbanceRelated Factors: Symptoms related to diagnosis of Borderline Personality Disorder. NOC Outcomes (Nursing Outcomes Classification) Patient will discuss various aspects of individuality that make up their personality. Patient will be able to distinguish behaviors, thoughts and feelings that differentiate their personality from others. Therapeutic Interventions * Work with client to recognize their own individual thoughts, values, and beliefs. * Encourage client to discuss feelings and claim ownership over these feelings. * Use photographs to increase clients awareness of their individuality.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Mary Shelley wrote Frankenstein in the year 1818. Mary Shelley's writing was actually very relevant to the gothic literature written in those times. People back then had very strong religious beliefs and despised the idea of Ã¢â¬Å"playing GodÃ¢â¬ . The new scary gothic-genre was exciting as well as inspiring for people. Mary Shelley uses negative adjectives and melancholy to create a gloomy and dark atmosphere. The first sentence is an example of this technique: Ã¢â¬Å"It was on a dreary night of NovemberÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ This sets the scene for the birth of the monster Ã¢â¬â the sinister mood already suggests that something bad will happen. In addition, Ã¢â¬Å"rain pattered dismally against the panesÃ¢â¬ and the candle Ã¢â¬Å"was nearly burnt outÃ¢â¬ with a Ã¢â¬Å"half extinguished lightÃ¢â¬ . This is slowly building tension and the audience is on edge. The creature is always described in such a negative tone that the audience can share Frankenstein's distaste for the creature. There is a whole paragraph on just the ugly appearance, for example: The creatures eyes are described as Ã¢â¬Å"dull yellowÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"His yellow skin scarcely covered the work of muscles and arteries beneathÃ¢â¬ . The creature is also called a Ã¢â¬Å"wretchÃ¢â¬ and a Ã¢â¬Å"demoniacal corpseÃ¢â¬ . The audience first presumes the creature is evil as well as hideous. At the moment of his birth, however, the creature is in fact entirely benevolent: he affectionately reaches out to Frankenstein Ã¢â¬â who the creature calls Ã¢â¬Å"fatherÃ¢â¬ later Ã¢â¬â but is dejectedly abandoned by Frankenstein. The evil one is now seen as Frankenstein, besides he has given life to, what is really the equivalent of a newly-born child, and has now left it behind. This exposes the immoral side of his character Ã¢â¬â he takes place of God (which anyone would know is not going to be good) and then he just leaves it behind like a sort of experiment he has just finished with. This shows the moral issues about the story Ã¢â¬â mainly Frankenstein's approach of taking God's place, but also his inability to care (for creature and family), and this supports the saying Ã¢â¬Å"never judge a book by its coverÃ¢â¬ meaning outer appearance never exposes the true inside. For people in the 19th century, this broadened their views on religion as a whole and the story shows that no one should ever take God's place and if this is possible, there are grave consequences. However, for a modern audience to be reading this story, they will not receive half as much effect as people from the 19th Century. Mary Shelley wanted to intimidate the audience with frightening language, but for a modern reader this almost seems boring. You could say that her story set a platform for gothic writers to follow, however this language has been over-used and now seems very out-dated. Modern readers are not just less gullible than the 19th Century readers, but we're also much more educated and have a greater knowledge of science. We modern readers know that making life is scientifically impossible, even if a whole body is used (and definitely not with electric eels and whatever else Frankenstein did. And anyway what's wrong with natural reproduction? But obviously the 19th Century readers always open to new science and are excited by anything new really. But back then people were very unsure of how far man could play God. No person felt that there is no God, and everyone lived in fear for all misfortune was caused by God. On the other hand, many people from the 21st century are in fact atheist (meaning non-believer). We don't fear God as much as people from 19th Century, but we are still wise enough to understand that there are limits. If what Frankenstein did could be accomplished, should and would we do it? This is a very controversial issue that people back then would have a straight answer to. Scientists have only recently made bacteria just by DNA. This could have benefits of helping health care but could there be a danger of creating humans out of DNA? Also could cloning animals, ultimately end up in humans getting cloned and creating genetically superior humans and a genetic underclass? There is no doubt this story has sparked people's imaginations for generations but one question that still hasn't been answered is Ã¢â¬â Could man create new life?
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Launching CPFR at Texan Foods - Assignment Example Traditionally the products were designed and manufactured by the manufacturing firms to be distributed by retailers and other agencies. This entailed only a very little communication between the manufacturer and the retailers. But the modern day business concepts have undergone tremendous changes with the relationships between different players of the industry are no longer defined by the old standards. In fact many retailers have begun manufacturing and many manufacturers have started their retail operations. Thus the traditional concept of supply chain model has been subjected to a radical change and it has become a supply complex. In order to obviate the complexities involved in the present day supply chain, CPFR acts as a transformational strategy. CPFR takes the business processes, people, and technology to higher levels of performance. The process of CPFR strives to promote "openness, information sharing, data exchange, visibility, and joint decisions". (Aghazadeh, Seyed-Mahmou d, 2003) Thus the ultimate aim of CPFR is being about total value chain collaboration among all the players in the supply chain who help to improve the value of the product to the end-customer. With this background this paper details of the challenges being faced by Texan Foods in the launching of full CPFR and also possible solutions for the effectiveness of the CPFR project. CPFR - an Overview "The concept of collaborative planning, forecasting, and replenishment has been promoted as a cure for what ails the food industry's supply chain." (Len Lewis 2007) CPFR has a greater role to play in the promotion of business for any business where there is a large network of supply chain is involved. The concept aims at improving the final value of the product at the hands of the customer. In this process the process links all the supply chain partners who have a role to play in improving the value. The use of the latest information technology is at the root of the success of any CPFR plan. Hence it is important that the companies collaborating with each other are technologically savvy. A definition of the process of CPFR goes like: "Collaborative planning, forecasting, and replenishment (CPFR) is an innovative and relatively new business process that allows supply chain partners to use their information technology for collaboration on forecasts of future demand, and for planning for future inventory replenishment. Usually, the partners involved in a CPFR initiative use the Internet to share data, exchange ideas, or otherwise collaborate with respect to inventory management tasks that are shared by the involved companies. At other times, the members of the alliance will meet in person to discuss various issues that arise in the weekly or monthly operation of CPFR." (Chad W. Autry) Texan Foods - A Background Texan Foods is a gourmet grocery chain founded in the year 1941 as a combination general store and family food market. Over the time the store developed into well-known medium sized grocery chain with about 65 store locations in South and Southwestern United States with most of the stores located in thickly populated areas. "The chain was known for the quality of its fresh produce, its wide variety
Friday, September 27, 2019
Complex SQL Benefits - Research Paper Example (2) It would be very difficult to incorporate Ã¢â¬Å"Driver Performance by MonthÃ¢â¬ in parallel with Month of CustomerÃ¢â¬â¢s total shipments/weights in the Customer Summary Report, especially when different months appear in both tables. (3) A typical SQL Statement will have to be written determining/rating the driversÃ¢â¬â¢ performance on the basis of # of manifests on time and/or delivered late. It involves calculation + IF and THEN conditions statements I understand that the Driver Table may be created on a need basis because the purpose of this table is to get the status of DriversÃ¢â¬â¢ Performance, which is also being recorded/saved into the permanent Customer File. I feel Ã¢â¬Å"Driver Performance by MonthÃ¢â¬ in the Customer File is against the concept of table normalization because the driversÃ¢â¬â¢ performance is nothing to do in the Customer Table carrying customersÃ¢â¬â¢ transactions.
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Prevention and Mitigation Analysis - Essay Example They include risk transfer, risk avoidance, risk reduction, and accepting the risk if everything else fails. All these strategies require the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s management to be ready to handle any risks since they happen when least expected and their effects can be devastating. The Arizona Department of Corrections operates 13 prison facilities, including the Arizona State Prison Complex Ã¢â¬â Lewis, which has six units, all named after correction officers killed in line of duty. The Dale Morey unit is one of these units where in early 2004, prisoners attempted to escape but ended up holding correction officers hostage. The standoff lasted for 15 days between January 18 and February 2, before the conclusion of negotiations and the release of hostages. This event exposed various loopholes in the management style of the Arizona Department of Corrections. The management could have prevented the long 15 days that the two officers went through had officials responsible foreseen and acted o n these weaknesses. Though the ordeal ended peacefully, it caused trauma to the officers involved, and the people lost faith in the institution. Therefore, the management had to work extra hard to remedy these. Strategies to Handle the Situation The management could have done several things to avoid the standoff, or at least reduce its effects. Since prevention is always better than cure, preventive strategies are usually more effective and less expensive as it is easy to predict an occurrence but not its effects. Therefore, of all the recommendations discussed, the management of any institution should always attempt preventive measures. Measures the prison management could adopt include; acquiring knowledge on disaster preparedness, self-defense training for officers, hiring professional crisis negotiators, employing adequate prison officers, humane treatment of prisoners, increasing officersÃ¢â¬â¢ pay, improvement of prison infrastructure, and providing officers with better weap ons (Greenstone, 2005). Education The Arizona Department of Corrections should take all its employees for training one aspect or the other of risk management. This means that all employees should have the guiding steps to take in case something out of the norm happens. In that case, their efforts would not conflict or waste in other manners, as they would all be geared towards achieving a common goal in an orderly manner. The management should make schedules such that employees go for training in disaster management on a rotational basic, so that the information would be up to date with the situation at their workplace. In addition, there should be maximum employee participation in making decisions that affect the conditions of the working environment. The management should perform an analysis to identify the effective portions of training and single out others for modification, improvement, or reinforcement. Employees should undergo an analysis too, to identify the most valuable on es, especially among the low ranking correction officers. The management should single out high performing low rank officers, recognize, and award them so that other officers may emulate them as ideal employees. This system should be successful considering that the only other people that these officers interact with are criminals (Hubbard, 2009). Self-Defense Training Though officers go for rigorous training before employment, the system
Terrorist Activities & Community Members - Assignment Example However, the first major step is getting information from the community as this is the largest information gathering sector for law enforcement. Introduction Terrorist activities are planned crimes against the people in the form of bombings, fires, disruptions of services through electronic hacking, and in shootings of innocent people which cause injuries and death (EMD 2013). Other crimes may also be attached to terrorist activities in the form of robberies when terrorists commit these in order to build up financial funding for their endeavors. It is essential when law enforcement departments are setting up programs on surveying potential terrorism activities, that community members are also included in the process of observing specific activities and people who act suspiciously and could indicate a potential for an upcoming terrorist act (EMD 2013; SARA 2013). Training may also be included so that people understand what it is they must look for so as to report it correctly to law e nforcement members. 1. Some of the types of businesses that would be a hunting ground for terrorists are pawn shops that carry firearms for sale, old cell phones, huge amounts of hardware tools, nails, nuts and bolts, knapsacks and other cheap items; home improvement centers which carry everything listed above, new, but can be bought in huge quantities; libraries that have Internet access for information searches as an anonymous users, plus literature that can be reviewed for free without checking them out of the library (Smith 2008). Terrorists may also visit their target areas, such as stadiums, airports, specific high-risk government buildings such as town halls, or capital buildings, large hotels with international clientele, and well-known businesses (EMD 2013). New York City and Washington, D.C. both have a large number of buildings that are high-risk for terrorist attacks, such as the Financial District in New York City, and the Capital Building in Washington (Smith 2008). De pending on the type of terrorist, national or international, other businesses at risk are newspapers, hospitals, colleges, utility and nuclear plants, abortion and Planned Parenthood clinics, train and railroad centers, and Internet provider businesses (EMD 2013). 2. Businesses can be monitored by agreement and in partnership with the owners, who agree to hand over information about people and events that occur that might preclude an eventual attack. A pawn shop, for example, can inform the police if someone comes in and wants to purchase a large amount of old cell phones in the shop case. While some non-profit businesses do purchase these as part of a program for the elderly, the poor or for women who have been in abusive relationships and are being relocated elsewhere, normally, large purchases of these types would signal a potential for a terrorist who will use the phones as bomb detonators (EMD 2013). Internet connections can also be monitored, so long as a proper warrant has be en approved through regular channels, not only for what businesses are doing but also to observe customersÃ¢â¬â¢ communications or even if there is tampering from the outside that indicates hacking from a terrorist organization (Menn 2013). 3. If business owners and community members become suspicious
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Corporate finance - Assignment Example Blume (1993) had suggested that CAPM provides a model of equilibrium risk/return relationship. The CAPM also denotes that there exists a linear relationship between expected return and non-diversifiable systematic risk which is denoted as beta. This linear relationship is denoted as security market line (SML). In SML, the systematic risk of a share is compared with the risk and return of the market as well as the risk free rate of return for estimating the expected return of a particular share (Arnold, 2008; Pike and Neale, 1999). Figure 1 Source: (Ogilvie, 2008) CAPM defines risk as an extent to which the return of the portfolio of shares or a single share has a covariance with the return in the market. If it is assumed that CAPM correctly defines the capital market, then the risk/return relationship can be established for an efficient market strategy. The CAPM equation represents this relationship and expected return is seen to be a function of the following equation: R = Rf + ? (R m Ã¢â¬â Rf) Where: R = Expected return on the portfolio or share. Rf = Risk-free rate of return. ? = Beta. It signifies the volatility of the portfolio or the share relative to the market portfolio. Rm = Expected return on the market portfolio. Rm Ã¢â¬â Rf = Market risk premium (Harrington, 2001; Jones, 1998). Parameters of CAPM The risk-free rate of return: It signifies the return on the asset that has no risk. This indicates that it neither has covariance nor variance with the return on the market. In reality, it is difficult to find an asset of this kind and doubts prevail regarding the actual existence. Various proxies like, treasury bills and government bonds, are used in this stead. However, these proxies are also subjected to inflation and uncertainty and cannot be considered as entirely risk-free (Harrington 2001; Watson and Head, 1998). Return on the market: For CAPM, one of the most important implications is the existence of optimally efficient market portfolio. In t heoretical approach, the market portfolio consists of risky assets that are diversified among the portfolios available. Once this portfolio is held, it is not possible to diversify the risk any further. The market return is the return on the market portfolio, including all the risky assets. Unlike risk-free rate, the market return is difficult to estimate. It is approximated by using the indices of the stock exchange as the proxy for the market. However, issues exist regarding the selection of index to be used as proxy. Beta: It is the measure of non-diversifiable risk and relative measure of risk. It is the risk estimation relative to the market portfolios. In simple words, it measures the price volatility of the share or a portfolio of shares and also, how the expected return of the portfolio or the share will react in consideration to the movement of return in the market portfolio (Moyer, McGuigan and Kretlow 2001; Jones 1998). Hence, beta is the measure for the difference betwee n the return of the various portfolios of share or shares (Ward, 2000; Jones, 1998). Application of Capital Asset Pricing Model in Corporate Decision making CAPM argues that total risk is measured by
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Textiles - Essay Example The fabric is heavier and thicker compared to most other fabrics. The thickness and weight is depending on some issues such as the novel yarn used. The thick structure and heavy weight of the fabric are caused by the fact that the novel yarn used for the fabric has a different structure and form which in most cases includes multithreads used for the yarn (Sekhri, 2012). The texture of the fabric is rough, unlike most other fabrics which are smoother. It is however not very rough, while the degree or roughness may depend on the individual fabric and based in the novelty yarn used. As stated, the yarn used for the fabric is the novelty yarn which comes in different structures and types. There are a number of novelty yarns with different structures and designs. These include the ply yarn, the Core, Eyelash, BouclÃ © Ribbon, Chenille, Crepe yarns. Each type of yarn is based on a different The structure of the novelty fabric is complex and according to the India Textile Journal (2014), this comes from the fact that the yarn used many have a number of threads made into one. The multiply yarn for instance has three then sewn into one and this makes the fabric to have a differed structure. The ply yarn, named so die to its three plies of threads, ahs these threads, each thread having this purpose such as offering strength, design and merging (Strong, 1953). This gives the fabric a novelty form of structure. The beauty of the fabric emanates from the structure which is a raised structure with a rough feel. Ironing this garment would press the fabric and this would reduce its beauty and the rough feel texture. Hand wishing the fabric would be best as this would protect the good quality of the fabric. The fabric can also be machine-washed but with gentle tumbling. If the fabric has to be machine-washed, then gentle cycle would be better to avoid destroying the fabric structure. The fabric is a little delicate due to its special textural features. Tumble drying would
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Analysis of Death of Woman Wang Historical Novel by Jonathan Spence - Essay Example The fascinating structure of the book consists majorly on the observation on the people having to do work on the land, their social conflicts and, their family structures. ... 2 In his quest to escape the challenges and the fact of being dismissed, he was not happy to go back to his home in Shao-wu, Fukien, out of fear of disgrace, this instead compelled him into an absolute poverty3. His attempt, after finishing the local history, culminated further into more sorrow. His return to Fukien was accompanied by the Rebellion of the feudatory. Since he was amongst the many literati and former officials, he got ordered to take up bureaucratic "office", it was upon refusing to resume the office that Feng retreated to the Fukien mountains, where the constant exposure in 'bitter weather led to his death. Another key actor aforementioned is Huang who was also a magistrate in the County, stationed in the countyÃ¢â¬â¢s city. A Chinese imperial official, who had gone past the Confucian examinations and was posted in T'an-ch'eng. Upon coming to realizing T'an-ch'eng as a very poor area, in which, almost the whole population had been decimated. In his attempt, to allev iate the poverty by campaigning for tax cuts, particularly in areas where farming had ceased to operate as usual, taxes collection could help, not only from the rich landowners but also from the poor farmers. He came across a lot of challenges and concerns; one such was the superstitions, most of the residents committing suicides out of the hard life and a series of natural disasters. Though he is compassionate, Huang can safely be considered a product of the unsuccessful Chinese major system Confucian ethics and ideas, overwhelmed by the arrogance and the corruption of the rich and the degeneracy and despair of the poor.Ã Ã
Saturday, September 21, 2019
A CopÃ¢â¬â¢s Life Essay In Ã¢â¬Å"A CopÃ¢â¬â¢s LifeÃ¢â¬ Heather MacDonald describes the mediaÃ¢â¬â¢s blinding prejudices when it comes to policing and race and supported it with two different copÃ¢â¬â¢s life stories. First is about a black man who was shot dead by a cop who was trying to restrain him because he was running naked through traffic pounding cars and received only two mentions in the press outside Seattle. MacDonald compared this story to an angry-cop case that has been videotaped slugging a cuffed black teen once in the head who received 370 stories in the event and flooded the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s airwaves and presses. The author describes how being accused of racism affects a cop to do his job. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world, due to a continuous competition in news and media industry, it seems like most of the news that is coming out today are reconstructed to a way that it will attract more people. And due to the fact that for some reasons, bad news are more catchy than good news and that influential people like policemen are more interesting to talk about, a lot of people are being mislead by mediaÃ¢â¬â¢s bias information. I would take the example used by the author in this article as my example. It is an incident of a police officer who has been forced to use his power to stop a civilian who is doing an unlawful violent behavior. The whole story was not out in the news which includes the behavior of the civilian before and just after the latter was cuffed. The only video that they represented was when the civilian was thrown on the hood, but the earlier part that should supposedly concludes the reason why the police officer has to do it was never presented. It was this type of bias reporting that left the police officer guilty and no way to defend himself. Being a cop is not easy for it requires commitment, responsibilities and dedication. Civilians look at you as a perfect person who are not allowed to commit a single mistake and that all of the things that you will be doing should be at the right thing, that is why when a cop is linked to an incident wherein the copÃ¢â¬â¢s image is being affected that would make a history and will be talked in news in different forms. Cops will be assaulted, cursed at, assaulted and even shot at but they can never strike back. Bias opinions by the media should stop and the heroic deeds of the cops should be recognized. Part 2 1. Harlem Renaissance started last 1920 in New York as part of the African American History and it gave birth to new talents like Langston Hughes, Zora Neale Hurston and Paul Robenson. 2. Ã¢â¬Å"UnconsciousÃ¢â¬ made Sigmund Freud famous as he published books and an article explaining this type of humanÃ¢â¬â¢s condition. According to him this is a part of an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s personality that they cannot control. He also conducted series of Psychoanalysis to people with different ages which supported his beliefs. 3. Watchers might perambulate around the place where the incident happened that is why peace officers protected the throughway. 4. Police officers practice professionalism despite of the large number of tasks being assigned to them. References Heather Mac Donald. Ã¢â¬Å"A CopÃ¢â¬â¢s LifeÃ¢â¬ July 23, 2002. The National Review. http://www. nationalreview. com/comment/comment-mac-donald072302. asp
Friday, September 20, 2019
International Business Research Question and Answer Question 3 You are the CEO of a company that has to choose between making a $100 million investment in Russia or Poland. Both investments promise the same long-run return so your choice is driven by risk considerations. Assess the various risks of doing business in each of these nations. Which investment would you favour and why? Answer INTRODUCTION International Business International Business is evolved from international trade and international marketing. International business is a crucial venture due to the influence of varied social, cultural, political, economic, natural factor and government policies and laws. According to Michael H. Moffett, Ã¢â¬Å"International business is the process of focusing on the resources of the globe and objectives of the organizations on global opportunities and threats in order to produce, buy, sell or exchange of goods and services world-wide. Factors Lead to International Business Establishment of WTO Globalization of Economies Rapid technological Advancement Enlargement of European Union Increase in competition Higher growth rate of GDP in developing Countries Increase in business alliances in degree and variety Emergence of supportive institution RUSSIA Russia is the worlds largest country in terms of territory. Its consumer market consists of over 140 million people. It has vast resources, a highly educated workforce, and technologically advanced research and production capabilities. Still, Russias economic potential remains largely untapped. Many investors shy of Russia amid growing concerns that the political system in the country is breeding dissent among the population. As such, the economy has been in a state of flux in recent months and its close proximity to Europe amid the financial crisis remains a pivotal danger. However, none of these things change what Russia has to offer. Its technological capabilities matched with its natural resources give the countrys economy great potential. Political turmoil will only drive prices down, making it a better time to invest in this country. Investment Climate and Opportunities Overview 1. Dynamic Economic Growth 2. One of the Largest Consumer Markets 3. World-Renowned Human Capital 4. Vast Natural Resources 5. Unique Geographic Position 6. Technologically Advanced Economy 7. Attractive Taxation System 8. Extensive Government Support 9. Stable Social and Political System RUSSIAÃ¢â¬â¢S ECONOMIC OVERVIEW Russia has undergone significant changes since the collapse of the Soviet Union, moving from a globally-isolated, centrally-planned economy towards a more market-based and globally-integrated economy, but stalling as a partially reformed, statist economy with a high concentration of wealth in officials hands. RUSSIA: RISK ASSESSMENT 1. SLOW DOWN IN GROWTH: Growth has slowed down in Q2. This trend should beconfirmed over the whole of 2012, with the Russian economyhowever holding up in a very depressed internationaleconomic context. Oil production reached a record level inthe middle of the year. On the other hand, industrial productionhas suffered from a fall in demand from the mainpartners of Russia (European Union and China). Investmenthas been curbed by a rise in production costs reducingcompany profits. Private consumption, the main driver ofthe Russian economy, was buoyed in HY1 by the rise inwages and social spending, growth in banking credit aswell as the good state of the employment market. However,the rise in inflation is now affecting the increase in realwages and therefore domestic demand. Inflationary pressurehas increased since June, under the effect of the risein the price of food (increased by the effects of the summerdrought) and public services (energy). The Central Bankraised its refinancing rat e in mid-September (from 8% to8.25%) to try to contain the rise in prices within the limit ofits 6% target. 2. BUDGET CURRENT BALANCES DEPENDENT ON OIL PRICES: The 2012 budget was amended in June to take accountof an expected rise in oil prices (from $100 to $115 a barrel),which increases fiscal revenue and allows expenditureto be maintained. Oil revenue accounts for half of Staterevenue and the price of oil ensuring equilibrium in publicfinances has doubled since 2008. Taking into account therecent change in the price of a barrel, revenue should bebelow that expected while expenditure will not be reviseddownwards. Consequently, the balance should be slightlyin deficit at the end of the year. However, Russian publicfinances remain solid with public debt below 10% of GDP,leaving the government some room for manoeuvre, at leastin the short term. 3. COMPLEX JUDICIAL SYSTEM: Property rights are widely perceived to be contingent on political connections, and intimidation of businesses by the FSB and police for political and financial ends is frequent. Red tape stifles innovation, and lack of transparency makes adequate partner due diligence elusive. The judicial system is also problematic: legislation implementation is broadly unpredictable and the independence and integrity of Russian courts is deeply flawed. 4. CORRUPTION AND LACK OF GOVERNANCE: Corruption and weak corporate transparency is another major ongoing risk for investors. Many analysts admit say that this is a big problem particularly among some of the smaller companies, whose accounts are not particularly transparent. Even well-known and respected companies like IKEA which heavily focus on practicing ethical businesses activities declared a moratorium on subsequent Russian investments due to the ongoing concerns of corruption. Based on the Corruption Perception Index, Russia has a lot of obstacles to fair and efficient business practices. Even Iran, Libya and Pakistan are perceived as having less corruption. 5. POLICIES: RussiaÃ¢â¬â¢s economic and fiscal policy is not investor-friendly. The tax code is overly complex. Russia also has a distinct penchant for protectionism: despite its WTO accession, it continues to unpredictably implement levies, tariffs and bans on hundreds of imports. Tight relations between business and politics are highly detrimental to the business environment. POLAND Polands economy is much smaller than that of Russia. However, with a strong consumer market of 38 million, it is still one of the biggest markets in Europe. The country benefits greatly from its geographical location, which makes it possible to export goods to all European countries and thus reach over 500 million consumers. Similar to Russia, Poland has a highly educated workforce. Therefore, Poland also falls victim to its proximity to Europe and the ongoing crisis. For these reasons many investors are also shying away from this nation. In these trying times though, Europe still remains a solid economy, and though it has faltered, it has managed to remain intact. As investors flee Europe amid growing concerns over the failure to revive the economy and provide successful solutions, Poland offers a great bargain. Polands economic performance could improve if the country addresses some of the remaining deficiencies in its road and rail infrastructure, business environment, rigid labour code, commercial court system, government red tape, and burdensome tax system. ECONOMIC OVERVIEW OF POLAND Poland has the largest economy in Eastern Europe, and one of the highest levels of foreign investment at $13.9 billion as of 2006. Polands economy has been growing quickly, at about 6%, for the past 5 years, and was growing at an even faster pace before this. Despite its GDP growth, Poland faces numerous economic issues; it has chronic high unemployment, low wages despite significant increase of productivity, massive flight of educated population abroad, and low level of innovativeness and highest percentage of people working for national minimum wage among countries of European Union Poland: Risk Assessment 1. DECELEARTING GROWTH IN 2012: Economic activity remained sustained in 2011, despite a slowdown in growth during the last quarter. Growth has continued to decelerate in 2012. Household spending, which represents 60% of GDP, effectively remains low due to a decline in consumer confidence, in conjunction with an annual inflation rate of 3.8% in August 2012, a public sector wage freeze and deterioration in the employment market (13.3% unemployment). The Polish trade deficit shrank in 2012 following a contraction in domestic demand in Q2 VS. Q1 (-3.1%) and slowing exports (+0.8%). Although exports were impacted by a slowdown in Western Europe, exports towards Russia and Ukraine progressed by more than 20%. The heavy deficit in the income balance wiped out most of the positive effect from the trade improvement. The impact of external trade on GDP was nonetheless limited on account of the low level of trade openness compared to other Central European countries. An expected reduction in i nflation should enable the Polish central bank to modify monetary policy. The governor has committed to cutting rates in the event of an economic slowdown. Despite the decline foreign investment flows will cover the current account deficit. At the end of July 2012 net investment flows covered the deficit, i.e. EUR 8 billion. The private construction sector was weighed down by a fall in household demand. The construction production index published monthly by Euro stat fell 8% over the first 7 months of 2012 compared to 2011. Furthermore, the construction sector was boosted, during several months, by the organisation of the European football championships in June 2012 (stadiums, hotels, road networks Ã¢â¬ ¦) with support from public investment. Corporate credit remained dynamic during Q1, particularly in zloty terms, but investment will decelerate sharply over coming months. 2. STRUCTURE AND HIERARCHY IN POLISH COMPANIES: Organisations in Poland have a strong respect for hierarchy and authority, with structure and delegation coming from above. This hierarchical style is reflected in manyPolish businessformalities and settings, including the decision-making process and the use of professional titles. Seniority in Polish organisations is acknowledged and respected and the corporate hierarchy is often formed on the basis of age and educational background. For this reason, when negotiating, it is advisable to send delegates of a similar status to those of Polish colleagues, both in age and professional qualifications. Rules and regulations are an important part of the Polish business environment so Polish counterparts may expect theirbusiness partners to know and appreciate established etiquette and business protocol. 3. RELATIONSHIPS: Doing business in Poland requires an understanding of the importance of relationships in polish businessculture. Building individual relationships is essential to the success of business objectives, especially in the long term. Polish people take time to establish relationships with business partners and to build trust. Poland has a family-focused society, and poles value building and maintaining close personal relationships. This may be considered as a challenge for many foreigners doing business in poland who are not used to sharing personal information with their business partners. For poles this is one of the stages of the trust-building process. 4. COMPLEX BUREAUCRACY: Although PolandÃ¢â¬â¢s per capita GDP is increasing relative to the rest of the EU, it amounts to less than 70% of the EU average. Nonetheless, strong domestic consumption is one of the engines of growth in Poland. Poland has made great strides toward improving the commercial climate, but investors point to an inefficient commercial court system, a rigid labour code, bureaucratic red tape, and a burdensome tax system as challenges for foreign companies. 5. IMPROVEMENTS IN INFRASTRUCTURE: Although many infrastructure improvements have been completed or are underway, Poland still has much work to do in order to modernize its road and railway network. Weaknesses in transportation infrastructure increases the cost of doing business for U.S. businesses by limiting ready access to all of the markets within Poland and diminishes the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s current attractiveness as a regional distribution hub. Internet access and connection strength is good in the cities, but still very limited in less populated regions. 6. IMPROVING PUBLIC FINANCES: The Public finances development and consolidation plan implemented by the government in order to respect Maastricht criteria from 2013 onwards will be pursued. The public deficit, which reached almost 8% of GDP in 2010, is expected to fall below 4% in 2012, through higher taxes on oil products and an increase in social contributions. As a result, public debt should stabilise at around 55% of GDP. However, as a large proportion of the debt is held by non residents, it is vulnerable to risk aversion among investors. Furthermore, the European recession has weighed on foreign direct investment flows in 2012 which has meant that the only stable capital flows financing the current account deficit have come from European structural funds. The Polish banking system seems relatively robust, with capitalisation ratios in excess of Basel III minimum requirements. However, subsidiaries of foreign banks, which are mostly implanted in the euro zone, represent two-thi rds of the banking sector, which is therefore dependant on foreign capital. Banks remain highly exposed to currency risk, as household loans denominated in foreign currency account for 14% of GDP. Furthermore, the zloty depreciated by 8% of its value against the euro between January and September 2012. 7. A COMPARATIVELY STABLE POLITICAL CONTEXT: -The 2010 presidential election resulted in Bronislaw Komorowski leading a coalition between his centre-right party (PO), which had been in power since October 2007, and the Polish peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s party (PSA). The general elections held on 9 October 2011 confirmed the coalitionÃ¢â¬â¢s position. The Prime Minister, Donald Tusk has made budget deficit reduction a priority. However, the latest opinion polls highlight growing popular discontent with current fiscal austerity. Furthermore, the adoption of the euro has been postponed due to the single currencyÃ¢â¬â¢s current lack of appeal according to the Prime Minister. CONCLUSION Both countries have positives and negatives aspect of investment. But after assessing risks Quotient in these two countries one can conclude that it is difficult to set up new facility in Russia. Because there are more factors affecting risk perception in Russia as compared to risk perception in Poland. Poland is better option than Russia REASONS FOR THIS The only EU country to have avoided recession in 2009 FDI appeal is reinforced by the size of the domesticmarket Diversified economy The highest absorption rate of European structuralfunds in emerging Europe
Thursday, September 19, 2019
The Use of Isolation in Two Fairy Tales The social evolution from the Enlightenment to the Romantic Age altered the usage of reason in literature by instituting elements of imagination and mysticism. Likewise, the usages of certain concepts in literature can reflect social attitudes of the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s environment. One such concept that is common to both Ludwig TieckÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Fair-Haired EckbertÃ¢â¬ and Wilhelm WackenroderÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"A Wondrous Oriental Fairy Tale of a Naked SaintÃ¢â¬ is the isolation of characters. Isolation, as the cause, or simply as an indicator, of suffering in these two literary fairy tales is a notion that is successfully used to dictate the spiritual fates of the characters in each story. There are several manifestations of isolation as the cause of suffering in Ã¢â¬Å"Fair-Haired EckbertÃ¢â¬ . The first manifestation is literally separation anxiety. Despite the fact that character interactions in this story only lead to trouble, the characters yearn for solidarity with one another. Subsequently, their isolation inevitably leads to misery. After running away from home, BerthaÃ¢â¬â¢s lonely voyage is filled with tears and is self-described as Ã¢â¬Å"utterly comfortless,Ã¢â¬ and she longs Ã¢â¬Å"but to see one [other] human creatureÃ¢â¬ (33). Upon discovering the green valleys that imply potential cohabitants, Bertha claims, Ã¢â¬Å"my loneliness and helplessness no longer frightened meÃ¢â¬ and she is Ã¢â¬Å"joyfully surprisedÃ¢â¬ (34) to see the old woman. Bertha overcomes the pains of isolation by living with the old woman; however, this relationship soon falls apart and Bertha once again runs away. Bertha voyages Ã¢â¬Å"amid tears and sobsÃ¢â¬ (39) and stumbles back upon her home town. After finding out her parents had passed away, Bertha Ã¢â¬Å"drew back quickly and left the village ... ... strong religious overtones present in both texts. Isolation is utilized as a cause of suffering for the characters in TieckÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Fair-Haired Eckbert.Ã¢â¬ It serves as punishment for these characters as a result of bearing the burden of original sin, and thus conveys the pessimistic view of human spirituality as a downward spiral from the Garden of Eden. Conversely, in WackenroderÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"A Wondrous Oriental Fairy Tale of a Naked Saint,Ã¢â¬ the concept of redemption from isolation (the indicator of suffering) represents the optimistic stance of human spirituality as ascension to Heaven. It follows that the dichotomy between isolation as an indicator or the cause of suffering in these two stories reflects the larger dichotomy between optimistic and pessimistic tones taken in Romantic literature, specifically those taken by Tieck and Wackenroder in these two literary fairy tales.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Charles Ruff: The Privacy Defense Privacy was a big issue during the impeachment proceedings and the overall sex scandal. It was introduced as an issue by the House Managers who wanted to discuss how moral and appropriate the actions of the president and Monica Lewinsky were. The defense then used the same topic to argue that he should not be impeached. This was because, as the defense planned to show, a president should not be impeached for something that occurred during his private life. This is mainly based on the fact that impeachment, as defined, applies to the president and his role regarding the state and safety of the country. Privacy was introduced by the House Managers but widely used by the defense team. The defense focused on this so completely because private matters do not fit into the actions of high crimes and misdemeanors, which is required to impeach the president. The main purpose behind focusing on privacy was to show that matters in a personal life to not reach the level of impeachable regardless how immoral they were. The main goal, therefore was to prevent the impeachment of the president. Privacy is also an issue that Charles Ruff seems to live by. He is one of the most powerful attorneys in the country, and was a prosecutor of Richard Nixon during the Watergate scandal. However, it is very difficult to find a lot of information about him personally, or about his career. Typically it seems that there is more information available about someone with a powerful position such as Ruff, than others with less powerful opinions. When it comes to the issue of privacy and the impeachment, there are a few questions that come to mind. In the past, the private life of a president was not reported in the media. What has changed since then making it acceptable for the media to report on ClintonÃ¢â¬â¢s private life with such detail? What were some of the turning points? When it comes to the impeachment proceedings, are personal issues a reason to impeach a president? Why is it that Ruff never defends the president or denies ClintonÃ¢â¬â¢s activities? IsnÃ¢â¬â¢t that how a defense attorney usually proceeds? How does the issue of privacy fit into RuffÃ¢â¬â¢s own life? Clinton is not the first sitting president to have a mistress or an affair. Multiple others have as well, but the media never broke the story to the public. Charles Ruff: The Privacy Defense :: Essays Papers Charles Ruff: The Privacy Defense Privacy was a big issue during the impeachment proceedings and the overall sex scandal. It was introduced as an issue by the House Managers who wanted to discuss how moral and appropriate the actions of the president and Monica Lewinsky were. The defense then used the same topic to argue that he should not be impeached. This was because, as the defense planned to show, a president should not be impeached for something that occurred during his private life. This is mainly based on the fact that impeachment, as defined, applies to the president and his role regarding the state and safety of the country. Privacy was introduced by the House Managers but widely used by the defense team. The defense focused on this so completely because private matters do not fit into the actions of high crimes and misdemeanors, which is required to impeach the president. The main purpose behind focusing on privacy was to show that matters in a personal life to not reach the level of impeachable regardless how immoral they were. The main goal, therefore was to prevent the impeachment of the president. Privacy is also an issue that Charles Ruff seems to live by. He is one of the most powerful attorneys in the country, and was a prosecutor of Richard Nixon during the Watergate scandal. However, it is very difficult to find a lot of information about him personally, or about his career. Typically it seems that there is more information available about someone with a powerful position such as Ruff, than others with less powerful opinions. When it comes to the issue of privacy and the impeachment, there are a few questions that come to mind. In the past, the private life of a president was not reported in the media. What has changed since then making it acceptable for the media to report on ClintonÃ¢â¬â¢s private life with such detail? What were some of the turning points? When it comes to the impeachment proceedings, are personal issues a reason to impeach a president? Why is it that Ruff never defends the president or denies ClintonÃ¢â¬â¢s activities? IsnÃ¢â¬â¢t that how a defense attorney usually proceeds? How does the issue of privacy fit into RuffÃ¢â¬â¢s own life? Clinton is not the first sitting president to have a mistress or an affair. Multiple others have as well, but the media never broke the story to the public.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Arnold Schoenberg was born on September 13, 1874, to a Jewish family in Vienna. He taught himself composition, with help in counterpoint from the Austrian composer Alexander Zemlinsky, and in 1899 produced his first major work, the tone poem VerklÃ ¤rte Nacht (Transfigured Night) for string sextet. In 1901 he married Zemlinsky's sister Mathilde, with whom he had two children. The couple moved to Berlin, where for two years Schoenberg earned a living by orchestrating operettas and directing a cabaret orchestra. In 1903 Schoenberg returned to Vienna to teach. There he met his most successful students, the Austrian composers Anton Webern and Alban Berg, who became his close friends. In his compositions, Schoenberg employed far-reaching harmonies, a trait that later developed into atonality. Because of this, riots erupted at both premieres of his first two string quartets in 1905 and 1908. Such experiences led him often to feel persecuted by a public that could not understand his music. Schoenberg also began painting during these years and exhibited his work with a group of artists in the circle of the Russian painter Wassily Kandinsky. This period was marked by tragedy when Mathilde had an affair with his painting teacher, who committed suicide after she returned to Schoenberg. In 1911, the year in which Schoenberg published his book Theory of Harmony, he accepted a teaching position in Berlin. There he composed one of his most influential works, Pierrot Lunaire (1912). He returned to Vienna in 1915. The interruptions occasioned by World War I, combined with Schoenberg's search for a way to ensure logic and unity in atonal music, prevented him from producing many works between 1914 and 1923. By 1923, however, he had completed the formulation of his twelve-tone method of composition. Mathilde's death that same year was a serious blow to Schoenberg, but in 1924 he met and married Gertrud Kolisch, the sister of an Austrian violinist. With the invitation in 1925 to teach composition at the Academy of Arts in Berlin, Schoenberg finally obtained a prestigious position, financial security, and a stable family life. In 1932, the year the couple's daughter was born, he completed the second act of his opera Moses und Aron (produced posthumously, 1957). Schoenberg and his family fled Nazi Germany to Paris in 1933. In 1934 they immigrated to the United States, and he accepted a teaching position in Boston. The next year, because of his health, they moved to Los Angeles, where his two youngest sons were born.
Financial statements are a means of communicating numbers within a business. Without proper numbers your business could be a success or a big failure. Ã¢â¬Å"You will rely on them to make decisions, and managers will use them to evaluate your performance. That is true whether your job involves marketing, production, management, or information systemsÃ¢â¬ (Kimmel, 2009). The financial statements shows the business financial standpoint at a given time period, and it also helps the business to understand what they need to do to improve. A companyÃ¢â¬â¢s livelihood depends greatly on their financial statement because it determines if the business is successful, can it hire new employees, or can it receive any more additional loans. A financial standpoint of the company is monitored by its financial statements. The four basic financial statements are retained earnings statement, balance sheet, income statement, and statement of cash flow. During a certain time period presenting a snapshot of what your business owns (its assets) and what it owes (its liabilities), you prepare a balance sheet. Ã¢â¬Å"To show how successfully your business performed during a period of time, you report its revenues and expenses in an income statementÃ¢â¬ (Kimmel, 2009). Specifying how much of prior income was dispersed to you and the other owners of your business in the form of dividends and how much was reserved in the business to allow for future growth a retained earnings statement is presented. Showing where your business obtained cash during period of time you would prompt a statement of cash flow. The purpose of balance sheet it to show the amount of assets a company has obtained by evaluating the claims of creditors and the claims of owners. This type of relationship can be shown in an equation assets equal liabilities plus stockholders equity. A company success or failure is monitored by its income statement because it shows a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s revenue monitored by its expenses. The net income is obtained through the income statement by deducting its expenses from its revenues. The retained earnings statements are different because retained earnings are the net income retained in the corporation. Dividend payment practices are assessed because the amount of the retained earnings statements is deducted or added by the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s dividends. The statement of cash flow shows the company operating, investing, and financing doings. It shows the company cash position and what is happening to its most important source. Managers use financial statements for several purposes. If a company needs to meet labor demands and need to hire new employees the financial statements helps in knowing how many employees they can afford to hire. On the income statement, management compares sales and expenses of a period of time with recent events to notice if there is a big change. They can identify likely problems and investigate the cause; however, they can regulate if they can afford new equipment, merchandise, and other operating expenses. Using the balance sheet managers can determine if a change applied helped the company or delayed it. Employees look at financial statements to know if the company is managing their money well and can meet payroll obligations. Employees also can gain knowledge of potential bonuses or layoffs based of the net income that is reported on the income statement. Financial statements are useful to investors and creditors because it shows the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s financial position and allows them to make better decisions concerning the company. For the investors and creditors financial statements helps to evaluate the risks related to the possible investment or loans issued as well as estimate returns from the money invested. Investors and creditors analyzes companyÃ¢â¬â¢s financial position, operational results, cash generated by different activities before making investment decisions. If the company owes more than it owns than creditors may not allow that company to receive additional loans. To investors it shows if the company is operating profitably. Financial statements are vital to the success of a business. They can be used as a roadmap to direct you in the correct direction and help you avoid costly failures. Maintaining financial statements for a company can only help a company. Improper financial statements put a company in jeopardy. The different statements show if a company can afford to hire new employees or if they need to do some lay-offs. To determine if a company can be approved for additional loans or if it is expected to fail you must rely on the financial statements. In general financial shows the financial standpoint of a company and decisions a company has to make cannot be made if there are no financial statements.
Monday, September 16, 2019
The book gets its title from a story a black New York Times writer, Brent Staples, told Steele about how he ad to whistle Vivaldi anytime he walked on the streets of Hyde Park a suburb of Chicago so he wouldn't look violent to the dominantly white people who lived on that part. Staples who knew he had a social identity because he was black used the whistling to steer through that part of his daily life.Identity contingencies are the things you have to deal with in a situation because you have a given social identity. Stereotype threat in the book, from my understanding can thus be defined as when a person finds himself/herself in situation or circumstance where his or her performance/behavior consciously or unconsciously is affected usually by negative stereotypes.A typical example was the Golf experiment in the book where Jeff stone and his team using typical stereotypes about whites been less naturally athletic than blacks and blacks been less intelligent than whites as the experim ental variables was able to prove how the performance of the white students at Princeton University was reduced when they were told they were been tested or their natural athletic ability and how the same thing happened to the black students when they were told they were been tested for their sports strategic intelligence.The 2nd experiment Steele describes was the experiment in which a third grade teacher Jane Elliot trying to teach her students the importance of the life and works of Dry Martin Luther King identified eye color as the basis Of been smarter, cleaner and been well behaved. This experiment exemplified how an identity and stereotype affects a person's way of thinking and ability.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
This reflective essay speaks about Educational Psychology, a good teacher, general principles of development, the brain and cognitive development, PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of cognitive development and Lev VygotskyÃ¢â¬â¢s sociocultural perspective. Educational Psychology plays a very important role in our daily lives as it helps us to understand and develop strategies to improve the learning process. An effective teacher is one who is organized, not biased, patient, and flexible and knows how to teach medium and slow paced learners. The essay also speaks about Development; persons develop physically, socially and also personally. It also speaks about the different ways in which development takes place. The brain begins to lateralize soon after birth and therefore have specific functions to carry out. PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of cognitive development speaks about the four stages while Lev Vygotsky educates us on his sociocultural perspective. Educational Psychology is important to me as a teacher in training as it helps me to understand my studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ behaviour and the strategies that I can use to help them. Life is a process and therefore we go through changes from conception to death. This process is called development. We develop physically, socially, and also cognitively .The changes that occur early in our lives, are generally assumed to be for the better and to result in behaviour that is more adaptive, more organized, more effective and more complex (Mussen, Kogner, Kagan, 1984).I also learnt that development takes place at different rates and that is persons may be more coordinated than others and also be more mature in their thinking. Secondly, development takes place orderly as we learn to babble before we talk and the final one is that development takes place gradually, that is you know the letters of the alphabet before you can spell words. Finally, the one that stands out to me most is maturation. Maturation deals with the natural changes that take place in our bodies. The changes in the climate donÃ¢â¬â¢t affect the natural changes that will take place in our body only severe sickness or malnutrition. The brain is also important in cognitive development as each part is given a specific function to carry out. However, the different parts of the brain combine in order to perform human activities and constructÃ understanding. There are some terms that are associated with the brain and the first is synapses, as the word suggests they are tiny spaces between neurons and that chemical messages are sent across the gaps. Hippocampus really took me by surprise as the first syllable Ã¢â¬Å"hippoÃ¢â¬ is the name of an animal. However it means recalling new information and recent experiences. Myelination is also very new to me and it means influencing thinking and hearing. The basic tendencies in thinking help us to organize our thoughts and behaviours into coherent systems. Our thinking process and knowledge is now developed through adaptation and this is adjusting ourselves to the environment. Assimilation, accommodation also takes place. Sometimes it seems as if I am searching for some balance in my thinking and this is known as equilibration. PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of cognitive development is not foreign to me as I did in Introduction to Psychology. I know that there are four stages and each stage has a different age group. The fist stage is the sensorimotor stage and children at this stage are usually zero to two years of age. The most significant things that occur at this stage are: the children develop object permanence, perform goal directed activities, use there senses and also uses imitation. The pre-operational stage is age two to seven years. Children are able to use symbolic function for example taking a broom and riding it saying that it is a donkey. There motor skills are being developed and therefore they would want to feed themselves. In the concrete operational stage children are able to think logically, can engage in a conversation and reversibility, classification and seriation takes place. The final stage is the formal operational stage and they are able to reason well and they also develop adult egocentrism and that is the heightened self consciousness that is reflected in adolescents and the belief that others are interested in their thoughts as they do. It also speaks about them having a sense of uniqueness and wants to be noticed by others. However some students will develop reckless behaviour including suicidal thoughts and drug abuse. In my opinion VygotskyÃ¢â¬â¢s theory is much better than PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s. He placed moreÃ emphasis on the development of language than Piaget. He also states that language is the most important symbol in the development of language. As a child I use to talk to myself and now I know that it is private speech. I really believe that private speech guides an individual into making the right decisions and also into problem solving. The most important part of his theory is the zone of proximal development. My understanding of it is that at a particular stage in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life given guidance and support will help me as an individual to master something. Children first learn pronounciation and they shy away from those words that are hard to pronounce. For example my three year old son says Ã¢â¬ËbegetableÃ¢â¬â¢ instead of vegetable. I also believe that adults should use language in the childÃ¢â¬â¢s learning experience and donÃ¢â¬â¢t use high flown words because the child should be able to relate to what is being said. Vocabulary, grammar and syntax are developed at around age five. However parents can buy books, read to their children, take them on a nature walks and also answer their questions so as to develop their language.
Saturday, September 14, 2019
Briefly summarise the HRPM (i.e. the 2 core professional areas, the remaining professional areas, the bands and the behaviours) comment on the activities and knowledge specified within any 1 professional area, at either band 1 or band 2, identifying those you consider most essential to your own (or other identified) HR role Human recourses professional map (HRPM) The CIPD in HRPM In general sets out how HR adds value to the organization. It describes standards of professional competence for organization. Each and every HR practitioner must know their organization inside out and truly understand it. Also they have to know the main ways in HR expertise and set the behavioural skills. This allows us to then turn the knowledge into action. The two core areas of HRPM apply to all professionals. Insight Strategy and Solutions explains how to develop actionable insights and solution, which are adjusted to a deep understanding of business. Using personal experience I will develop understanding of the organization and its context. To achieve this I will have to do series tasks, which include tasks like using relevant information and articles to build and widen understanding of new initiative and practices and generalist areas of Human Recourses. To spot potential opportunities and risks for organization I will collect, collate and analyse data in one of the professional area I am interested in -Performance and reward (Band One) I would analyse data and performance and reward information on individuals or groups and advise colleagues to aid decision-making. I will collect all information and feed in ideas and observation from reward functional and performance surveys to my colleagues and others to influence policy, process and decisions. Also I would have to provide all the relevant information, data (analysis and insights from reward data to support development of reward plans and strategy) Help employees understand their role in change, the reasons for it and the results that are expected by Providing data and analysis regarding market positioning. Support the delivery and evaluation of planned one-off and on going people programmes and projects. Keep records of identified risks and plans to mitigate against them Collect,Ã collate and analyse project metrics, data and report back on key Promote the value of diversity and inclusion in all activities Support employees and managers to apply people policies consistently and fairly. Provide accurate and timely information, data and advice to managers and employees on oganisationÃ¢â¬â¢s people policies and procedures and employment law Recognise team and organisational culture and its impact on activity To develop understanding of the organization and its context organisational purpose, key products/services and customers Relevant press relating to the organisation Basic financial and non-financial performance information on the performance of the organisation The sector context in which the organisation operates; legal and market factors that impact performance. Significant issues within the organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s environment which impact you and others around you, for example economic, social, political, environmental conditions Diversity and inclusion initiatives and activities within your area The way the organisation, and/or functions Ã and teams are structured and managed The governance and decision-making processes guiding how you deliver A sense of how things really work in the organisation and the barriers to change The capability and skills that are needed within the organisation How the 10 professional areas in this Map combine together to create an overall human resources offering to the organisation Knows or can access relevant law, in relevant local and international jurisdiction Where to access external information on HR or specialist area good practice and thought leadership. Project management principles and practices How a strategy and in-year operating plan relate Group and individual responses to change. How to collect and provide information required to support business cases and monitor budgets Leading HR is important for professionals even if they are not in leading role as is important that they grow and develop in this area which provide active, insight- led leadership. They can do that by driving themselves, others and activity in organization. The other eight segments identify the activities and knowledge that are required to provide specialist support. *Organizational design ensures that the organization is well design to deliver its objectives and that structural change is effectively managed. *Resources and Talent Planning is making sure that organization identify and attract key people who are able to create competitive advantages. *Performance and Reward builds a high- performance culture by delivering programmes that recognise and reward critical skills, capabilities, experience and performance. Ensures reward system are equitable ( fair) and cost effective. *Employee Relations ensures that the relationship between an organization and its staff is manage appropri ately within clear frame work and that relevant employment law, policies, procedures, communications, negotiations and consultations are followed. *Organizational Development isÃ making sure that the work force deliver strategic ambition. Ensures that an organization culture value, environmental support enhance its performance and adaptability *Learning and Talent Development ensures people at all levels posses and develop skills, knowledge and experiences to fulfil organizational ambitions. *Employee engagement ensures that all aspects of employment experience, the emotional connections, that employees have with their work, colleagues and organization is positive and understood. *Service and Delivery Information ensures that the delivery of HR services and information to leaders and employees within organization is accurate, timely and cost effective. HR data manage professionally The CIPD in HRPM model out eight behaviours which describe how work activities should be carried out. They are: Collaborative (people skills), Courage to Challenge (Confidence to speak out), Driven to Deliver (Deliver best results), Role Model (Lea ds by example), Curious (Future focused, open minded), Decisive Thinker (Decision maker), Skilled Influencer (Demonstrates ability to influence), Personally Credible (Deliver Professionalism)
Friday, September 13, 2019
Overview of Bhopal Disaster - Essay Example The number of deaths and injured people however did not stop during the release of MIC in the atmosphere but continued to kill Bhopal residents for months that followed that the Indian government reported to its Parliament that the tragedy has taken 1,430 lives in just four months. By 1991, the number of people in Bhopal who died from the tragedy reached more than 3,800 and the number of people who contracted disability reached approximately 11,000 (Jackson 1983). Later investigation showed that the disaster was caused by a disgruntled plant employee who poured water into a batch of batch of methyl isocyanate in a storage tank. The water caused chemical reaction to the effect that it created heat and pressure in the tank. These chemical reaction in tank forced the valve to open that forced the chemical to be released into the atmosphere where the chemical compound was transformed into a lethal gas that killed the nearby Bhopal residents (Union Carbide a 2013). This report was both confirmed by Union CarbideÃ¢â¬â¢s panel of experts as well as the Indian government. After the incident, the company who owned the plant, Union Carbide India Limited (UCIL) sought permission from the government to clean up the area and this clean up drive extended until 1998. In this year (1998) UCIL was taken over by the Madhya Pradesh State Government, which owns and had been leasing the property to Eveready assumed responsibility of the facility and shouldered all accountability for the site (Bhopal.com c). After the disaster, UCIL provided around $2 to the Prime MinisterÃ¢â¬â¢s Relief Fund to help aid in the easing the tragedy and also brought in its own panel of experts and medical experts along with the medical equipment and supplies. The company also donated $5 million to the Indian Red Cross as a supplement to the initial donation. The company also shared its available information and study about methylisocyanate (MIC) with the Government of India to effectively respond to the ill effect of the chemical (Bhopal.com b).
Thursday, September 12, 2019
Design - Research Paper Example These factors, according to Hsieh (2011), have a profound impact on the actions, behaviors, and interests of a student in language classrooms, which either hinders or promotes their performances in learning foreign languages. In addition, gender has become increasingly important as a perspective in foreign language acquisition investigations, which have highlighted females as being more positive and interested in comparison to males. This gender perspective is especially salient because it has important pedagogical and theoretical implications in the learning of foreign languages, especially because females tend to use more learning strategies and do so more effectively (ONeill, 2008). However, there is a dearth of information about the very nature of these differences in nature and whether they are linked to attitudes, motivations, or both. Therefore, investigating affective aspects is increasingly crucial with the addition of the gender perspective to enhance the outcomes and inter ests of students in learning foreign language (Lee, 2005). This study will seek to contribute to current literature by providing more gender-sensitive insight for a Muslim country. The in-depth interview method will be used for this research study because it is considered as the best fit for collecting social and personal concerns, approach, motivations, beliefs, and attitudes (Babbie, 2010). In addition, it is possible to vary the scope of the interview method from investigations on a large scale to studies on a small scale that can be conducted by one researcher. This is especially because the rationale behind in-depth interviews involves attaining a snapshot of attitudes and conditions at a single moment or point (Fowler, 2013). For this research study, the interview questions will be adapted from the ATMB, or Ã¢â¬Å"Attitude Motivation Test BatteryÃ¢â¬ , by Gardner. The selection of GardnerÃ¢â¬â¢s Attitude-Motivation Test
Wednesday, September 11, 2019
Cultural Differences and People Management - Essay Example As the paper stresses the current situation is showing a change in the mind set and work domain involving women; from a survey conducted by the ORC worldwide, as of 2008, the ratio of men to women assigned to work overseas was 83.5: 16.5, the number being quite low for women, but a growth of 2.5 % from the previous survey conducted in 2002. Some would consider it fun to move into a new place, but the reality dawns on them once they are there. International mobility and repatriation requires a lot of resources, ranging from time for planning to financial support, to facilitate smooth transit into the new environment. Apart from work purposes for mobility, the other large group who feel the pressure of international mobility are the vast number of international exchange students. The jostle for any of these groups extends from issues of administrative management dealing with the countries of destination, and expatriate support in the moving out and settling in new environments, to cult ural shock and adjustment. It has never been easy, but it calls for the foreigner (employee or student) to be flexible enough to cope with the new life. Depending on the organization one is involved, there could be welcome activities that ease up the tension and familiarize new settlers in a place. This study declares that students studying overseas have experienced this programs based on the different international exchange student groups and the admitting institutions. However, whether these people have moved in temporarily or permanently, the multifaceted experience in the unfamiliar environment, way of life, and transition in the different cultures, results to serious influences and implications. Cultural Shock occurs in different ways among people who encounter unfamiliar situations, or any happening that was not expected in a mix with different cultures. Based on the profound personal experience in the environment, it could reoccur differently immediately after settling or lat er in the adjustment period, as people would be forced to respond to the changes in situations. Due to its way of emergence, some people argue it as one event happening, but the majority view it as a process. According to Furnham, culture shock depict unpleasant effects as surprises or shock experienced after touring or living in different cultures, because the occurrence were unexpected and could lead to negative evaluation of the diverse (own and new) cultures. The shock is experienced by those in mobility, whether internationally or within the region or society (such as organisation restructuring and population social changes), highly skilled or less skilled, but facing unfamiliar environments of cultural context. However, there are minor situations that make one less affected or perhaps not experience the cultural shock; this depends on the previous experiences in other cultures, the variation of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s culture and the newly available, oneÃ¢â¬â¢s preparation (psychologic ally and resourcefully) before and/or after encountering unfamiliar culture, which all influence the degree of the culture shock and individuals reactions.
Tuesday, September 10, 2019
Controversy of Real Name Policy on Facebook - Research Paper Example More so, the Real-Name Policy on Facebook is a measure that has been endeavored to ensure that people know for sure whoever it is that they are connecting with, and in so doing, the whole Facebook community then remains safe, through effectively curtailing cyber-bullying (Meganmeierfoundation.org., 2014). In this respect, Real-Name Policy on Facebook requires that several identity measures should be observed. First, individuals should use the real name that they use in real life, when establishing a Facebook account, without adding numbers, unusual capitalization, symbols, punctuations or repeated characters (Facebook.com., 2014). Secondly, individuals establishing a Facebook account should refrain from adding characters from multiple languages, while at the same time refraining from adding any titles such as their profession or religion (Facebook.com., 2014). Finally, the individuals interested in joining Facebook should also ensure to avoid the usage of words, phrases or nicknames that are not part of their real names, while at the same time refraining from using any offensive or suggestive words, titles or phrases as part of their identity on the networking site (Facebook.com., 2014). This way, it will be possible for the Facebook community to remain safe, owing to the fact that p eople will only interact on the basis of knowing each other authentically, thus avoid the incidences of cyber-bullying that has been a characteristic of the social networking (GÃ ¶rzig & Frumkin, 2013). Cyber-bullying has been defined as the application of the information technology tools in order to harass or harm others deliberately (GÃ ¶rzig & Frumkin, 2013).Ã
Monday, September 9, 2019
Why is Human Factors such a big issue in the aviation industry - Essay Example Maintenance work in this field involves working under extreme and hazardous environment and in case of an emergency the workload and pressure on the maintenance personal is immense. Flight cancellations and delays in take off can cost airlines dearly in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s scenario. And in case of accidents the charges can be even more steep and it has to be met along with all the legal issues involved (Adams). Thus it is extremely vital for aviation personals to possess adequate knowledge dedication and efficiency in order to avoid accidents and contribute to the safety and security of the industry (Graeber). The aviation industry is currently taking all possible steps that would enhance the working conditions for the human factor and thereby help to reduce accident rate. This is carried out with the participation of specialists, technicians, crew and the customer. The various areas that are being addressed include improving deck design, and error reporting systems, better flight crew co mmunication, navigation and surveillance systems, developing user-friendly methods and tools for management, training human factors in handling and maintenance of the airplane, formation of the fault information team which will identify faults thus enabling the mechanics to maintain the operational efficiency of the airplane, involving customer inputs, and addressing human factor related issues such as fatigue and working conditions of the maintenance personal (Adams; Graeber). 1. Adams, Charlotte. Ã¢â¬Å"Human factors: Beyond the Ã¢â¬Å"Dirty DozenÃ¢â¬ .Ã¢â¬ Aviation today. 1 Aug. 2009. Web. 21 Sept. 2010.
Sunday, September 8, 2019
Vision and mission of the Knights Templar in the 21st Century - Essay Example Considering the religious zealously of the Middle Ages, the Holy Land was a prominent, if not the most prominent, focal point of political change, both in Europe and the Muslim Middle East. The conquest of the Arabs provided the Pope Urban II to make a rallying call to all European nations to embark on the Holy Crusades. The First Crusade resulted in the capture of Jerusalem in 1099, and this prompted an increase of the already substantial number of pilgrims that came to visit the sacred Christian places in the Holy Land. However, even though the large city centers, like Jerusalem, were secure from local criminals, the Outremer, the territory between these city centers was heavily plagued by robberies and murders. Hugues de Payens and Godfrey de Saint Omer in 1119 proposed the creation of a monastic order with the purpose of protecting the pilgrims. Therefore, The Knights Templar was created, which in 1129 was officially endorsed by the Catholic Church at the Council of Troyes. The p urpose of the Knights Templar, was therefore, closely linked to the Christian control of the Holy land and this purpose did not change in the three century history of the Order. The unchanging purpose of the Order, however, did not reflect the status, structure and grandeur of the Order. Beginning as poverty-stricken order consisting of only a few knights, it quickly developed into one of the most successful military and monastic orders of the Middle Ages. Its members were sworn to poverty, but accumulated and controlled a vast wealth, consisting of the estates of members which were nobles and the growing interest in the new system of protection, which consisted of pilgrims placing their finances with the Templars in Europe and retrieving their finances from Templars in the Middle East. The relative successes of the Crusades and the Templar's contribution further improved their wealth and status. It must be emphasized that the major contributions of the Knights Templar to society of the Middle Ages, as well as the Modern Age, such as the early forms of banking and the many building projects consisting of towers, public buildings and especially castles revolved around the basic purpose of the order- protecting the pilgrims in the Middle East. The failure of the several crusades had a detrimenting effect on the support for the order, and the political influence of some of the more powerful European leaders which were seriously in debt to the order, led to their decline and eventual demise. It is from this point that the influence of the Order on modern chivalric orders must be considered. Many of the symbols of the order were adopted by various masonic and charitable chivalric organizations, which take into account the fact that the main purpose of the Knights Templar cannot be resurrected and preserved considering the political and social situation on a global scale. Instead there is a more humane and charitable alteration to this purpose, which is more or less present in the statuses of all orders that bear the name and symbols of the Knights T
Research report - Essay Example This is since they do not have the same intellectual level as the analyst on the given subject. The author of the report needs to match the material with the interests of his/her audience. This can keep them interested through the presentation process. Without an exceptional presentation, the audience may find the material uninteresting (Lannon, 2007). Another reason why a researcher needs to think of his/her audience is the fact that their need for that information is vital. Therefore, a researcher has the capacity to influence the audience through the report (Lannon, 2007). The presentation needs to suit them perfectly. There is first the elimination of unnecessary detail. The audience needs to understand the motive of the research. Getting straight to the point is one way to do this. The audience may be lost while trying to decipher the main point of the research, hence losing interest. Another step is addressing the audience directly during the presentation (Gerson & Gerson, 2005). This can be of help since the audience need to feel as part of the report. Moreover, the language should suit the audience to make them understand better. This is to prevent losing them in the long run due to tough grammar. Keeping it short, precise, and to the point can help the audience appreciate the report, and the researcher. They do not need to get lost in the presentation of the findings. Hence; the reason to keep the presentation short (Gerson & Gerson, 2005). In conclusion, an exceptional report relies heavily on the presentation of the findings. If there is a poor presentation, then the research was in vain. It makes the researcher lose morale even though he/she might have decent material (Blicq, 2003). Following such steps, one is likely to have his/her audience interested in what they are