Wednesday, October 30, 2019

American-Mexican border issues Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

American-Mexican border issues - Essay Example In addition, the border region between the US and Mexico is a place of significance for the people who live in it. These people have a shared history, culture and heritage. This region has two deserts and rapid population growth. Tourism in this area is a major source of revenue. The people inhabiting this region share several common features, and have adopted a common lifestyle. They also tend to be influenced by the geographical features of the region. Moreover, they enjoy the unique features of an international border (Anderson and Gerber 1). Communities from the US and Mexico that live in this border region have adjusted to the peculiar challenges posed by the international boundary, which in also divides the local communities of great similarity. The migrants to this region have been compelled to adjust to the integrated culture, language, economy, and politics. These factors have significantly influenced these migrant communities from both the countries (Anderson and Gerber 1). As such, the international border produces profound effects on the daily life of every person in the region. According to Global Exchange, entering into the US has become a difficult task for illegal immigrants. A large number of such people have died in their attempt to enter the country, since the inception of Operation Gatekeeper. A majority of the illegal immigrants had died due to the unfriendly nature of the region. Some people had drowned in the canals and rivers. Others had died in the desert, due to dehydration, heat stress, and hypothermia (Beyond the Border – Mà ¡s Allà ¡ de la Frontera). As such, Operation Gatekeeper adopted an inhuman attitude towards illegal immigrants. In addition, ranchers had shot Mexicans in Arizona and Texas. Crossing the border is a hazardous activity, in which nearly 370 immigrants have died in the year 2000, due to exposure to heat and cold. There are a number of illegal immigrants

Monday, October 28, 2019

Health Risks of Energy Drink Essay Example for Free

Health Risks of Energy Drink Essay Introduction People want immediate results in the middle of the busy day, after exercise, or any other activity which requires them to recharge themselves. So, instead of focusing on key natural ways such as sleep habits, improving diets we used to go for certain energy drinks available in the market without knowing the pros and cons of these drinks related to our health. Recent researches on the consumption of energy drinks have proved that the excessive use of these types of drinks can cause severe health risk including increase in systolic pressure, insomnia, and various other discussed later in the paper. It is the common phenomena that energy drink used to rebuild the energy lost during the exercise, which is not right. Similarly, it does not help burn calories, neither it speed ups the metabolism nor it provides long lasting energy to our body. Energy drinks are the fastest growing beverages market (Bornstein, 2011). Youth is reportedly consumers more energy drinks than other demographic variable. There are various energy drinks available in the market targeting the same type of crowd with different slogan and appeals. Some have focused on athletes, some on teenagers and students etc. Excessive caffeine can cause various health problems such as insomnia, jitters, nervousness, gastrointestinal problems, and heart palpitations. Background Statement We see various TV ads focusing on red bull, 5-hour ENERGY, monster etc so are these drinks shelved at the supermarkets. However, American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and UK drug inspecting agencies has reported severe health related issues on the consumption of energy drinks. The sales of energy drinks in UK and other parts of the world is increasing so are the concerns after the researches made on this particular subject. Hence, the need is to review the myth surrounding energy drinks consumption. What are energy drinks? According to UK soft drink report (2012), soft drinks are â€Å"traditional glucose based energy drinks; functional or stimulation energy drinks which claim a particular energy boost from caffeine, Guarani, turbine and ginseng or other herbs or some combination of these ingredients†. The ingredients used in these energy drinks act as a stimulant to the central nervous system of our brain. These include caffeine or Guarani and vitamins etc. Health Risk There are various serious health risks associated with the consumption of energy drinks. Some of these health risks are discussed in this section. Drinking energy drinks in moderation is not necessarily harmful. Excessive consumption of energy drinks containing caffeine, however, can result in the same health effects related to consuming too much caffeine, such as insomnia, jitters, nervousness, gastrointestinal problems, and heart palpitations. Like sodas, the amount of sugar and empty calories (calories that do not contain nutrients) in energy drinks contribute to poor dietary health when consumed regularly. Hence, the affects of these drinks are short term as well long term. These affects are categorized below: Short term affects †¢ Hurts performance †¢ Increased heart rate †¢ Abnormal heart rhythm and other problems †¢ Crabby †¢ Trouble Concentrating †¢ Negative interactions with medications †¢ Increased Blood Pressure Long term affects †¢ Caffeine Addiction †¢ Liver Failure †¢ Sleep Apnea †¢ Kidney Failure †¢ Cardiovascular Disease So, it is better to be aware of these health issues and do not use more than 100mg/day of the caffeine as per health official recommendation. Conclusion After reviewing the ingredients, myths, and other factors surrounding the energy drinks it can be concluded that excessive use of caffeine i.e. by consuming more energy drink will certainly lead us to the several health risks which might be short term as well as long term. So, the need for the people is to get educate themselves, so is the responsibility of the energy drink manufacturers to warn the customers of the potential health hazards associated with the particular drink. References Roy-Bornstein, C. (2011). Just Say No to Energy Drinks. Pediatrics For Parents, 27(7/8), 11. UK soft drink report (2012) Available at: http://www. britishsoftdrinks. com/PDF/UK%20soft%20drinks%20report%202012. pdf.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Images Of Control Propaganda Essay -- essays research papers fc

One of the greatest revolutions in the twentieth century was not political in nature. It however aided in many different political revolutions. This revolution was the communications revolution. The twentieth century has experienced one of the greatest changes in mean of communication including technologies such as radio, television, motion pictures, advanced telecommunications and the Internet. These technologies have been used to fulfill the purposes of many. Some who wished to use this technology to influence other people. A term commonly used to describe the use of media to convince or persuade other people of a certain idea or cause is propaganda. Political leaders often use techniques of propaganda, as the goal of politicians is to convince people that their ideas supercede those of others. Two examples of propaganda being used extensively during the twentieth century is by the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi) in Germany from 1933 – 1945 and by the Communis t government led by Josef Stalin in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics from 1929 – 1953. In examining these two states and their use of propaganda, it can be seen that although both state had radically different ideologies, certain trends in their use of propaganda can be found to be in common. These primarily being: the glorification of individuals or groups as heroes, the glorification of the leader of the state, and the dehumanizing of the state’s enemies. After Adolf Hitler was proclaimed Chancellor of Germany in 1933 he started to establish a Nazi government. It became immediately apparent that the new government would have to get the people’s unquestioned support. Although the Nazi party had been relatively popular before Hitler became Chancellor, there was still opposition to be found in some people. One tactic that was used by the Nazi propagandists was to use a hero to symbolize all that could be accomplished under the new National Socialist government. A hero is also useful to rally the people behind something that they can relate to and have sympathy for. The obvious example of this is the Nazi glorification of Horst Wessel. Considered a Nazi martyr, he was in reality murdered and was not really a hero at all. He was however used by Nazi Propaganda minister Goebbels to be seen as a National Socialist hero who was murdered by Communists (Welch, 1983, p. 75). Horst Wes... from both nations can reveal certain common themes including the glorification of heroes, an all-powerful leader and the degradation of the nation’s enemies. It can be concluded that since two separate nations used the same themes and media that there must have been some degree of success. As one looks back at these two regimes one may wonder how people could have supported these radical and often horrific forms of government. Propaganda is defiantly one of many answers.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Works Cited Bonnel, Victoria E. Iconography of Power: Soviet Political Posters under Lenin and Stalin Berkeley:  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  University of California Press, 1997. Britain Alone. Videotape. London: BBC TV [1980]. 20min. Hitler, Adolf and Anton Drexler Programme of the NSDAP, 24 February 1920, 1999, Hiter Historical  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Museum, Retrieved 07 Nov. 1999. Maltin, Leonard â€Å"Triumph of the Will† Leonard Maltin’s Movie and Video Guide 1995 [CD-ROM]. Dutton Signet, 1994. Triumph Des Willens. Dir. Leni Riefenstahl Berlin: NSDAP – Reichspropaganda Abteilund, 1934 Welch, David Propaganda and the German Cinema: 1933 – 1945 Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1983

Thursday, October 24, 2019

The role of Marketing as being an ‘Initiator’ in identifying, evaluating, recommending and implementing overall retailing strategy

We suggest that marketing, along with Finance, Operation, Human Resource management, Property and System are functions that all contribute to the overall retail strategy. We would develop a strategic marketing plan that will identify customer's based opportunities. The central thrust is to positioning of the company in term of its Merchandise, Services and trading environment offer such that it is clearly recognizable by the customer group to which it is directed/targeted. At the same time, the fundamental requirements of the company can be identified and established as a performance requirements which need to be meet and the critical success factor can then form a planning structure for the company strategy decision. CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS 1. Increase sales revenue in real terms. 2. Increase gross profit in real term 3. Containing operation costs throughout the business 4. Increase the productivity of physical & human assets 5. Adding value to the customer offer 6. KEY VARIABLES. Key Variables. 1. Merchandise selection reflects customer requirement for choice, quality, exclusivity etc. 2. Co-ordinate merchandise ranges. Merchandise availability in stores and distribution centers. 3. Merchandise reorder/replenishment 4. Pricing/price competitiveness. 5. Customer perception of total Retail offer. 6. Provision of sales data. 7. Merchandise spaces planning & control. 8. Improve sales forecasting. 9. Research customer expectation. 10. Monitor customer responses, attitude and perceptions of competitive offers. Marketing Activities 1. Increase awareness of the ‘offer' among existing customers and potential customers—create positioning strategy. 2. Increase number of customer visits 3. Influence percentage of visiting customers to buy, 4. Increase size of purchase (buy more) 5. Increase range of purchase 6. Influence those who buy to return regularly and more frequently

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Role Management in Workplace

Role Management in the Workplace Role Management to me seems to be all about delegation. It helps you to decide who does what and who handles what. Management in psychology probably would be the same way designate responsibilities and also delegate so that each person could know what it is that they are going to do. I would say put people where they excel if you know someone has a strong suit then that is where they will best excel and get the job done. If a person is a great school counselor then they should be counseling at a school, if they work well in a clinical setting then that is the setting they should be in. Ayame may not be good in the confrontational aspect, and that is probably for not for her. Sometimes people are soft-spoken and don’t deal well with confrontation so in turn how can you really be motivated to do something that really doesn’t make you happy. I think it is really hard to receive feedback if people really can’t understand where you are coming from and maybe her culture isn’t really a confrontational culture and she is more reserved and laid back. Then again that may not really be the role for Ayame in delegating it is a manager’s responsibility to see what skills their employees have and what they are good at. Since Ayame is a project manager that means that she is in charge of managing other people and if she isn’t motivated to do her job how can she really motivate a team of people to get their jobs done as well. Everyone has their role in a workplace and if they can’t handle it then maybe that really isn’t the role for them. Cultural Background Some countries are more reserved and not quite so confrontational and maybe that is what Ayame’s problem is. Americans are aggressive and Japanese tend to be a little more laid back and hard working. Herzberg believes that with job satisfaction is what motivated people especially Japan. The way she is receiving feedback may be a way that she isn’t used to because she is not handling the situation confrontational. She may not be really comfortable with how things are done at her job because not all cultures handle things the same way. It seems as though Ayame may not have that go hard mentality and that’s just because of what she is used to. The Japanese are not like Americans and where they are different is that Americans can be confrontational whereas Japanese are more reserved. Ayame may just need to meet with her boss and find out what it is that she needs to do differently or maybe that isn’t the job for her. She can have a sit down and address ways she feels that she may excel better and see if those ways work and if they can implement them, because not everything has to be confrontational and some people handle it better with finesse. Motivation Techniques Motivation is the process by which a person’s effort are energized, directed, and sustained toward attaining a goal. I think the goal setting theory is great theory because sometimes goals push people further so that they can go further than they normally would if there were no goals set in place. Then when you are rewarding employees for achieving those goals it makes it even better because it feels as though their hard work has paid off and that just makes them want to work harder. I think when goals are put in front of you if you are a harder worker then you are going to do what you need to make sure you achieve them. When employers reward employee’s incentives do make people work harder because it means that there is something to look forward to. I also think a good technique is to see your manager working hard too it’s one thing to just designate but to help your employees and take time to make sure they understand the task makes them feel inspired and shows them that you care and that you actually want them to succeed. References 1). Decenzo, D. , & Coulter, M. (2011). Fundamentals of Management: Essential Concepts and Applications (7th ed. ). Boston, MA: Prentice Hall.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Tent Poles and Tentpoles

Tent Poles and Tentpoles Tent Poles and Tentpoles Tent Poles and Tentpoles By Maeve Maddox A reader wonders about a Hollywood term new to him: Have been seeing Hollywood recently using the expression tent poles, but its not clear what theyre trying to express. Can you enlighten us? Literally, a â€Å"tent pole† is a long stick that holds up a tent roof. A good rule of thumb is to fold the tent about the same length as the  tent poles before you roll it up.   A palatka is a hut with a  tent-pole  all the way to the top. I have seen tentpole used figuratively to refer to a tall person, the way Hermia uses maypole in her harangue against tall Helena: How low am I, thou painted maypole? Speak. How low am I? I am not yet so low But that my nails can reach unto thine eyes. The OED offers an example of tent-pole used as an epithet in the list of compound words in the entry for tent: His ugly, unmarriageable tent-pole of a daughter. Tentpole in the context of entertainment was new to me. The OED does not include a definition for this use, but Merriam-Webster does: tentpole noun: a big-budget movie whose earnings are expected to compensate the studio for its less profitable movies. In some contexts, a tentpole movie is one that will make money with tie-in merchandise. In television programming, a new, untried show is scheduled to follow a popular show- the tentpole- in an effort to keep viewers watching. Tentpole movies are usually equated with high-budget blockbusters: Universal Pictures has done away with the tentpole blockbusterthis year, at least Paul Greengrass has defended Hollywoods high stakes tent pole movie strategy, saying that big budget blockbusters are essential for the movie business. For the last five years or so, the dominant studio strategy for combatting lower attendance and movies’ declining entertainment market share has been a focus on bigger movies – the â€Å"tentpoles†, in industry parlance, â€Å"four-quadrant† movies that appeal to every stereotypical member of the stereotypical family, targeting the largest possible audience. An article in Forbes, however, speculates that less expensive films may be able to function as tentpoles: We may have reached the point where cheap comedies are the new tentpoles.- â€Å"Neighbors May Represent The Future Of Tentpoles,† Forbes In Hollywood jargon, a tentpole is a movie of any kind that can be expected to garner earnings beyond initial ticket sales, usually in the form of sequels and the licensing of related merchandise. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Expressions category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:50 Idioms About TalkingDisappointed + PrepositionConfusion of Subjective and Objective Pronouns

Monday, October 21, 2019

World Civilizations Essays

World Civilizations Essays World Civilizations Essay World Civilizations Essay Ancient world civilizations date back from 3500-500 BC. Some of the early ancient include Egypt, the Roman Empire, the Baghvad Gita, Mesopotamia and Deities of Warriors to mention a few.. Research conducted by scholars indicate that civilizations did not begin in the west as most people believe. As a matter of fact ancient civilization began from the northern desert and the Mediterranean regions. Civilization was not an event but a process. It therefore did not happen spontaneously but took length of time.There are various ancient civilizations as already mentioned which include Egypt, Mesopotamia, Warriors and Deities in the Near East, India’s Beginnings, Ancient China among others.   This paper focuses on each one of them analyzing how each was established.The history of ancient Egypt was characterized by fascination. Egypt is actually of the ancient establishments that may be said to have been rich in civilizations.   Some of the memorable fascinations that characterize Egypt’s civilization included; the pyramids, the sphinx, Chariots of the Gods, writings wall paintings and a whole lot of works of art.   These among others help us understand the style and way of life in ancient Egypt including their way of life. The geographical location of Egypt is north eastern of the African continent. It took slighting above 300 years.   Civilization of ancient Egypt was also characterized of control of resources both human and natural.   Other activities included irrigation, mining of minerals, trade and military ventures.Mesopotamia is also another ancient civilization whose geographical location is between two rivers known as Tigris and Euphrates.   Mesopotamia is actually said to be the first world civilization among all other ancient civilizations.   Some major activities that characterized ancient Mesopotamia included construction of levees to control destructive flooding.   Irrigation using canals was also very common.   History ha s it that the southern part of Mesopotamia came to be known as Sumer and thus the residents were known as Sumerians.   The Sumerians had civilized systems of administration where they organized themselves in city states.   Their place of worship was known as Ziggurat and only priests were allowed since it was a sacred place.   Every city state had at lease one temple.   Other characteristics of ancient Mesopotamia included was an ancient form of writing known as Cuneiform and Stylus which was instrument made from reed which they used to write. Young boys also attended a school known Edubba after which they graduated to scribes.Also classified among the ancient world civilizations is China whose history of establishment dates back to 15th century BC.   The major characteristic of this ancient civilization is the writings which looked like turtle shells. However China is known to have experienced political instability. This may have been as a result of the various dynasties that constituted the whole Kingdom.   Originally ancient China was made up of city states which later grew to dynasties.   China administration was based on dynasties until recently.In the Near East the Major characteristic was warriors and Deities.   The warriors were considered stronger active and more hardworking than other people.   There were gods who facilitated the success of war. In conclusion every ancient civilization had some features which characterized its establishment.   However, as noted all civilizations took quite a process.   All civilizations have however changed and most of them are now modern.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Syllabus - Tells You Everything You Need To Know About Your College Class

Syllabus - Tells You Everything You Need To Know About Your College Class When I first started college I had no idea what my professor meant when she said she was about to distribute the syllabus. Over the rest of that first day I came to understand that a syllabus is a guide to the course. Many students dont take advantage of the information provided in the syllabus to plan their semester. The syllabus contains all of the information you need to know regarding what is expected of you and what you need to do to prepare for each class. Heres what you will find on the syllabus distributed on the first day of class: Information about the Course Course name, number, meeting times, number of credits Contact Information The professor lists the location of his or her office, office hours (times that he or she is in the office and available for meeting with students), phone number, email, and website, if relevant. Plan to use a professors office hours to get the most out of class. Required Readings Textbook, supplemental books, and articles are listed. Books generally are available in the campus bookstore and sometimes are on reserve in library. Articles are sometimes offered for purchase in the book store, other times are on reserve in the library, and increasingly common, are available on a course or library webpage. Read before class to get the most out of class. Course Components Most syllabi list the items that compose your grade, for example, midterm, paper, and final, as well as the percent each item is worth. Additional sections often discuss each course component. You might find a section on exams, for example, that lists information about when they occur, what form they take, as well as the professors policy on making up exams. Pay particular attention to sections discussing papers and other written assignments. Look for information about the assignment. What are you expected to do? When is the final assignment due? Are you expected to consult the professor prior to beginning your paper or project? Is a first draft required? If so, when? Participation Many professors count participation as part of the grade. Often they will include a section in the syllabus describing what they mean by participation and how they assess it. If not, ask. Professors sometimes say that they simply record it and provide few details on how. If thats the case you might consider visiting during office hours in a few weeks to inquire about your participation, whether it is satisfactory, and whether the professor has any suggestions. Many times participation is used as a synonym for attendance and professors may list it in simply order to address students who do not show up for class. Class Rules/Guidelines/Policies Many professors provide guidelines for class behavior, often in the form of what not to do. Common items address the use of cell phones and laptops, tardiness, respecting others, talking in class, and attention. Sometimes guidelines for class discussions are included. In this section or sometimes a separate section, professors often will list their policies regarding late assignments and their make-up polices. Pay particular attention to these policies and use them to guide your behavior. Also recognize that you can shape professors impressions of you with appropriate class behavior. Attendance Policy Pay particular attention to the professors attendance policies. Is attendance required? How is it recorded? How many absences are permitted? Must absences be documented? What is the penalty for unexcused absences? Students who dont pay attention to attendance policies can be unexpectedly disappointed with their final grades. Course Schedule Most syllabi include a schedule listing due dates for reading and other assignments. Reading List Reading lists are particularly common in graduate classes. Professors list additional readings that are pertinent to the topic. Usually the list is exhaustive. Understand that this list is for reference. Professors likely will not tell you this, but they dont expect you to read the items on the reading list. If you have a paper assignment, however, consult these items to determine if any are of use. One of the simplest and best pieces of advice I can offer you as a student is to read the syllabus and make note of policies and deadlines. Most policy, assignment, and deadline questions I receive can be answered by, Read the syllabus - its in there. Professors dont always remind you of upcoming assignments and due dates. Its your responsibility to be aware of them and to manage your time accordingly. Take advantage of the course syllabus, an important guide to your semester.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

See the attachment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

See the attachment - Essay Example Or it could be said that it comprises of certain rules which we have to dutifully obey in order to live with a peaceful heart and soul. It is a complete system provided from some super human source totally unlike mankind. It is also the belief of sharing positive humanitarian experiences with every individual we interact with. So the basic ideology behind the concept of adopting any particular belief or religion for any normal person is to adjust ourselves harmoniously and also to achieve our own well-being by following any particular system of rules. Religion not only is the divine word from God, but it also is a definite set of persuasive ways for living life the way it is best suited for us humans. Science could best be understood in the words of Benjamin Farrington â€Å"Science is the system of behavior by which man has acquired mastery of his environment. It has its origins in techniques†¦.in various activities by which man keep body and soul together. Its source is exper ience, its aim practical, its only test, that it works.† (Grant). This essay is aimed at proving that science and religion are not conflicting with each other rather scientific findings and discoveries are supported in religion as well. History has seen many scholars debate and argue over the point that whether religion is in accordance with science or not. This issue heated up with the advent of prominent discoveries in the field of science and the relationship between the divine and the factuality was always considered at war. Andrew Dickson White’s â€Å"A History of the warfare of Science with theology in Chrishtendon† is an unavoidable example in this respect where he tried to lay the understanding of religion and science’s interaction. But his approach has been of a contradictory one. Immanuel Kant provided a completely different theory in this regard and believed that science and religion may no conflict but cater to opposite aspects of mankind. Sci ence is involved with natural processes while religion provides inner solace. Then only recently the relation between science and religion has gained some positive and substantial relation. The most important example in this regard would be of Stephen Jay Gould, who in his book â€Å"Rock of Ages: Science and Religion in the Fullness of Life† (1999) wrote â€Å"I†¦. do not understand why the two enterprises should experience any conflict. Science tries to document the factual character of the natural world and to develop theories that coordinate and explain these facts. Religion on the other hand, operates in the equally important, but utterly different realm of human purposes, meanings and values.† (Doumit) As this research based essay is an attempt to assess a particular religion with its relevance to the modern contemporary era of scientific researches and technology. It becomes integral to select some particular divine system for advancing in this research. Th ere is one little complication though which arose in my mind, that the selected religious system should be involving every particular aspect of normal daily human and social life. Only then a complete analysis can be made and a conclusion could be reached. So, after studying many different religious beliefs being adopted worldwide it is the Islamic system for humanity which I could find the closest to meet my research demands. The world Islam originated from Arabic word â€Å"

Russian Space Exploration Research Proposal Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Russian Space Exploration - Research Proposal Example Economic difficulties have caused problems for Russian space exploration efforts but commercialization has met with success and the space program still captures the imagination of the vast majority of the people of Russia. This essay presents a discussion about Russian space exploration efforts and questions if humanity can join in its efforts for the conquest of space to make the best of that which is available. Man has had an interest in space since time immemorial but the dream of space travel could only be satisfied when advances in rocket technology could make this dream possible (RussianSpaceWeb. com, â€Å"Pre-20th Century Developments†). Russia had established a rocket production plant as early as 1861 and Nikolai Ivanovich Kibalchich (1854 - 1881), a revolutionary who was to hang for his involvement in the assassination of Emperor Alexander II, had proposed the idea of slowly burning explosives as being useful for aeronautical applications. Thus, interest in space exploration had been present in Russia before the twentieth century but the practical realization of dreams could only be fulfilled because of advances in physics, chemistry and aeronautics, which were supported by economic development. Russia’s space exploration program was to receive a boost from efforts made in Germany to design long-range rockets during the Second World War (Harvey, â€Å"Russian Planetary Space Exploration† pp. 17 – 35). On May 4, 1945, Russian troops had occupied the German rocket research center at Peenemà ¼nde and this led to efforts directed towards improving on German rocket technology and incorporating the results in Russian technology (Chertok, pp. 1 – 15). Later, in 1950, a team led by Sergei Korolev was to study a multistage version of the R-3 rocket that was capable of launching a satellite into space and this was a departure from German efforts. However, Russian

Friday, October 18, 2019

Scenario planning for the future of Energy Essay

Scenario planning for the future of Energy - Essay Example After decades of thought and consideration, countries have mutually consented to get rid of cars altogether. Now, in 2030, roads are crowded with bicycles. People are generally happy to use bicycles because they have not only obviated the need to use oil, but has also rapidly decreased the number of road accidents. The bicycle-bicycle collision is far less as deadly and dangerous as a car-car collision used to be few years ago. Besides, regular peddling has been a good source of exercise and has helped people burn their calories. In the midst of Shanghai lives Chen with his family in a condominium. Today is Chen’s final exam, and he needs to get into the school within fifteen minutes. He lives one and a half miles away from the school. He catches his bicycle, but the tire is punctured. He can not wave to a taxi because there are no taxies, no bus, no car whatsoever! Mum and dad have gone to work over their respective bicycles. Chen has only two options to reach the school, eit her walk his way up to the school, or else, seek lift from somebody else. But most bicycles are overloaded because that is the only thing people have as a means of travel. Normally, if a person does not have a bicycle of his own, he/she has to suffer, though Chen is lucky enough to find a cyclist, Koto, with no one sitting on the back seat. Chen asks Koto the favor to drop him to school. Koto agrees to do the job provided that Chen purchases him a tin of cooking oil since he comes from a very poor family and can not afford to buy the cooking oil. Chen agrees and the two set off. Second Story: Saudi Arabia is suffering from a financial crisis as a result of her inability to meet the global demands of oil. Saudi Arabia’s predictions of her oil reserves have turned out to be overstatements which had no concern with reality. In reality, Saudi oil reserves had been depleting at a dangerous rate and much of the oil has been drawn out of the known reserves till 2025. For the last fi ve years, Saudi Arabia has reduced the supply of oil and is now suffering from a financial crisis. Ted, a teenager, turns the TV on to hear the news. Newscaster: Saudi Arabia’s attitude is being criticized for the turmoil in oil supply. For the past twenty years, Saudi Ministers have been making unnecessarily optimistic statements about their ability to make uninterrupted and sustained supply of oil to the world for a long period of time. Saudi Ministers have always been reluctant to get their oil reserves audited nor have they ever revealed accurate information about the volume of oil reserves. Much of the disparity in the demand and supply of oil in the contemporary age is attributed to the non-serious and inconsiderate attitude and short-term vision of the oil producing companies in Saudi Arabia. Experts are of the view that had Saudi Arabia allowed the auditing of her oil reserves and generate correct information about the oil reserves, it would have been possible for the world to take precautionary measures in time. The economy of Saudi Arabia has declined as a result of the reduced oil supply. Third Story: The New York City in 2030 looks totally different from the way it looked in 2010. On the roof of every house, there is a solar panel that faces the sun and revolves according to it in order to keep its surface exposed to the sunlight throughout the day. On every garage, there is a car that is driven by biofuel or electricity. Every individual

Statement of Career Objectives Personal Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Of Career Objectives - Personal Statement Example I have also worked in different departments of the hospital and have gained valuable experience of handling different administrative and technical matters. Organizational leadership is my favorite field of study and I think this is a right time for me to step in this field as I will not only be completing my graduation in business finance in May 2010 but also I have gained almost 10-year practical experience in the fields of healthcare and education. My interest in organizational leadership, relevant educational background, and work experience make me a suitable candidate to get admission in the University of Idaho’s Graduate program. Another reason for applying in this program is related to my professional life. I want to establish my career in the field of organizational leadership, and that is only possible if I get an opportunity to get a master degree from a prestigious university. University of Idaho is known for its highly qualified faculty not only in field of Adult/Organizational Learning & Leadership but also in all other courses being offered by the university. I believe that the University of Idaho can become a precious part of my educational and professional success by providing me with up to date education in my desired field. It is due to the well-experienced faculty of the University of Idaho, that I have taken my decision to do masters from this great university. I want to complete my education under the guidance of highly qualified faculty of the University of Idaho as it will help me become a professional in the filed of organizational leadership. I have a desire to establish my career as a successful organizational leader. I want to use my skills to ensure individual growth, to bring productive changes in the organizational culture and society, and for organizational development. I believe that a country can progress only if its citizens get high quality education from the top universities of the world. I have

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Aaa Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 2

Aaa - Essay Example The social media, like a program bundled with customizable options for the end users’ discretion – work the same way. End users can fully customize the function of Twitter, Facebook, Google+ and all available networks on the Web today. In that light, people choose what they want for Twitter to become – if a group of people choose to initiate a protest through Twitter – they choose to make it a form of civic revolution. In the beginning, social media was created for the purposes of connecting family members, relatives and acquaintances. But it has changed to connecting people of same interests. We have liking, recommending, tweeting and retweeting tool on these two giant networks, namely Facebook and Twitter. But I firmly believe that the decision is left by the brilliant guys behind Facebook and Twitter, and the like to the mass – the end users. The birth of the internet has given people the chance to build a network where communication and interaction is possible. Hence social media have proven to be dynamic tools to make the whole world connected – not just family members. The end users who have discretion to use these social networks to speak the truth and to enjoy freedom are responsible for promoting the civic and political protest, not the social media. Social media merely give all the tools for the end users to enjoy connectivity and exercise

Implementing the Risk Management Process in New Kitchen Heaven Retail Essay

Implementing the Risk Management Process in New Kitchen Heaven Retail Store - Essay Example The intention of this study is risk as the probability that a chosen action or activity including the choice of inaction might result into a loss or undesirable outcome. This implies that a choice has an element of influence on the outcome. Risk management process is therefore the systematic application of the policies, methods and practices of management to the tasks of establishing the context, analyzing, evaluating, monitoring, treating and finally reviewing the inherent risks. Risk management process is therefore an ongoing process that aids in identifying potential problems that could emerge when new projects are undertaken within a business. A solid risk management process facilitates the smooth running of a project. By identifying and addressing a list of project risks which are also part of the larger project or business management system, many disclosures and roadblocks are eliminated. Consequently the risk management process is an essential factor that should be considered in an organization so as to enable its business to effectively run. It ensures that a well structured a framework for more effective strategic planning to enable maximization of opportunities and minimization off losses is put. It equally promotes greater openness in decision making and improves communication in an organization as well as providing an effective and systematic approach which enhances the management focus on areas of risk concentration in their operations. Moreover, risk management widens the management’s perspective and encourages initiative and proactive behavior that improve the level of accountability in an organization. Identifying the Risk Factors Considering the compilation lists of the NKHRS project risks, it is realized that the major risks are concentrated in three sections, that is, in areas of Information Technology, Facilities and Retail. In the area of Information Technology there is the risk of getting a professional contractor to install the Eth ernet so as to enable effective operations. Similarly, there is the risk of getting the Point of Sale and server hardware in time for the smooth operations .In the area of facilities it is noted that there is a risk in obtaining the right and desirable location bearing the right price range This location might as well be risky in terms of the availability of the goods and the products accessibility to the consumers. In this case a plan should be developed to decide on whether to find the right location for a high producing store to avoid great loss in sales or to consider a different alternative that can generate good profits (Culp, 2006). Consequently, in the Retail category there is the risk of the availability of the products at the right time to the customers and that the shipment date for the

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Aaa Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 2

Aaa - Essay Example The social media, like a program bundled with customizable options for the end users’ discretion – work the same way. End users can fully customize the function of Twitter, Facebook, Google+ and all available networks on the Web today. In that light, people choose what they want for Twitter to become – if a group of people choose to initiate a protest through Twitter – they choose to make it a form of civic revolution. In the beginning, social media was created for the purposes of connecting family members, relatives and acquaintances. But it has changed to connecting people of same interests. We have liking, recommending, tweeting and retweeting tool on these two giant networks, namely Facebook and Twitter. But I firmly believe that the decision is left by the brilliant guys behind Facebook and Twitter, and the like to the mass – the end users. The birth of the internet has given people the chance to build a network where communication and interaction is possible. Hence social media have proven to be dynamic tools to make the whole world connected – not just family members. The end users who have discretion to use these social networks to speak the truth and to enjoy freedom are responsible for promoting the civic and political protest, not the social media. Social media merely give all the tools for the end users to enjoy connectivity and exercise

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

New Reality in Iran Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

New Reality in Iran - Essay Example Superimposing real life against the literary lives of characters in the famous works of Vladimir Nabokov, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Henry James, and Jane Austen, Nafisi demonstrated how literature acts more as a reflection than artistic expression of social realities that these authors experienced during their times. Nafisi addressed numerous social issues and injustices that occurred among Iranians, in general, and women, in particular, in the society she lives in. Despite this multitude of issues, she centered her discussion more on four major themes that corresponded with each part of the book. These four major themes are: (1) the creation of a "new and different world" by the oppressed Muslim women in Tehran; (2) analysis of Western culture and ideals vis--vis Iranian culture and ideals; (3) courage and defiance from a stubbornly defiant traditional society; and (4) integration of the three preceding themes-the enactment of women's revolution, summoning their courage to pursue their own 'new worlds' and defy and protest the oppressive nature of their society. The central argument presented in Nafisi's memoir, in effect, is the integration of these themes: the concept of Upsilamba, of creating a new and different world, and having the courage to do this, is what Nafisi and other Iranian women like her had aspired and succeeded in achieving-whether this causes them death or persecution in their own society. In the texts that follow, an elucidation of these themes and of the central argument in the memoir are discussed and analyzed in the context of cultural revolution-a shift to totalitarianism-Iran was experiencing in the late 1970s. The first theme answers Nafisi's reason for including Nabokov's novel "Lolita" as the primary text from which she felt motivated to pursue her dream of creating her own alternative class. "Lolita" is more than a novel; Lolita as the main character represented the women of Iran during the tumultuous time of totalitarianism and revolution in the country. Like Lolita, the women were and are continually robbed of the innocence and freedom that they should be experiencing in their own country, in the same manner that men enjoy greater freedom and privilege in this same country. Innocence and freedom are often associated with injustices committed against women, such as physical, psychological, and emotional abuse; however, in Nafisi's terms, the deprivation of innocence and freedom among women by the totalitarian regime they lived in was not just these kinds of abuse, but the total erasure of the individuality and sense of self that women had before the revolution began. The conversation that ensued among the women in Nafisi's alternative class reflected so much about the kind of mentality that developed as a result of the usurpation of people's individualities and rights by the republic. For the women, "Lolita" is not a novel that questions human morality, nor does its author, Nabokov, prescribe what morality and humanity should be. More than anything else, the novel attempts to illustrate humanity in its purest nature, wherein the individual aspires to do and act the way she wanted to,

Monday, October 14, 2019

The Great Gatsby Essay Example for Free

The Great Gatsby Essay While reading the classic novel The Great Gatsby, by F. Scott Fitzgerald, the reader can clearly see how this story can be viewed through the Marxist Lens. Through tales of trial and desperation, the story reveals what can happen when money and social class come into play. The author clearly portrays how the American dream can cause people to lose sight of the important things in life, and how people always want to make it to the top, no matter who they have to step on during the way up. Living in post-war America, the character’s visions are quickly clouded by greed and their egocentric desires, and tragedy strikes when lust and passion mix with sinful desires. Marxist literary criticism is the critical lens used to differentiate between social classes in literature. The Marxist lens pays close to attention to the literary works forms, styles and meanings, in a way that the reader can comprehend them and apply them to a particular history. In this specific situation, The Great Gatsby effectively displays the difference between social classes, and how these people act as individuals, and as a whole social group. On the very first page of the book, there is a quote from the narrator’s father that says: â€Å"Whenever you feel like criticizing anyone, just remember that all the people in this world haven’t had the advantages that you’ve had†. This quote pretty much sums up the whole Marxist theory. Though people may belong to various different social classes, every single person on this planet has had different experiences and opportunities, and everyone is different in their own way. One of the first characters the reader is introduced to is Tom Buchanan. Tom is a: â€Å"sturdy, straw-haired man of thirty with a rather hard mouth and a supercilious manner. Two shining, arrogant eyes had established dominance over his face, and gave him the appearance of always leaning aggressively forward †¦ you could see a great pack of muscle shifting when his shoulder moved under his thin coat. It was a body capable of enormous leverage—a cruel body. † (Pg. 7) By the sounds of things, it seems like Nick (the narrator) doesn’t particularly like Tom, but Nick is also fascinated with him. Tom is a fascinating kind of guy. Like Daisy, hes got something hat everyone else wants: hes got power. Toms family is rich. Not just well-off like Nicks family, and not inexplicably rich like Gatsby, but noticeably wealthy, with a long family history of money. And he does extravagant, crazy things with it, like bringing a string of polo ponies for Lake Forest. That may not seem like much, but in today’s society, that would be like buying a private jet: its a pretty flashy move, and it’s only ever done to prove that they can do it. In a sense, Tom is just as flashy as Gatsby. Tom, on the other hand, has something you cant buy. You might call it arrogance: â€Å"an attitude of superiority manifested in an overbearing manner or in presumptuous claims or assumptions†. So essentially, thanks to the money and family that he came from, Tom was born to live a certain lifestyle, one where he would live a certain way and marry a certain type of woman Tom’s wife, Daisy, is a beautiful young woman from Louisville, Kentucky. She is Nick’s cousin and Gatsby’s â€Å"long lost† love. As a young lady in Louisville, Daisy was extremely well known among the military officers and soldiers stationed near her home, including Jay Gatsby. Gatsby lied about his background to Daisy, claiming to be from a wealthy family in order to convince her that he was worthy of her. Eventually, Gatsby won Daisy’s heart, and they made love before Gatsby left to fight in the war. Daisy promised to wait for Gatsby, but in 1919 she chose to marry Tom Buchanan, a young man from a solid, aristocratic family who could promise her a wealthy lifestyle. After this happened, Gatsby was determined to win Daisy back. He made her the priority over everything in his life, and she was his main motivation behind the earning of his spectacular wealth through criminal activity. To Gatsby, Daisy is perfection; she has charm, wealth, she’s sophisticated and graceful. In reality, Daisy falls short of Gatsby’s standards. She is beautiful and charming, but also shallow and bored. Nick profiles her as a careless person who messes things up and then hides behind her money. Daisy proves her real ways when she chooses Tom over Gatsby in Chapter 7, then allows Gatsby to take the blame for killing Myrtle Wilson even though she herself was driving the car. Finally, rather than attend Gatsby’s funeral, Daisy and Tom move away, leaving no forwarding address. Daisy is in love with money, and lives a very materialistic lifestyle. She is capable of affection, but not of sustained loyalty or care. All-in-all, Daisy represents the differing values of the aristocratic East Egg. The infamous and â€Å"great† Jay Gatsby is the main character of The Great Gatsby. He is a young man, about thirty years old, who came from a poor childhood in rural North Dakota, and eventually overcame his setbacks to become incredibly wealthy. However, he achieved this impressive feat by participating in organized crime, including distributing illegal alcohol and trading in stolen securities. Even before his adult years, Gatsby despised poverty and dreamt of wealth and living the upper-class lifestyle. He dropped out of St. Olaf’s College after only two weeks because he couldn’t stand the janitorial job he was doing in order to pay for his tuition. Though Gatsby has always wanted to be rich, his main motivation in acquiring his fortune was his love for Daisy Buchanan. Gatsby dedicated himself to winning Daisy back after she married Tom, and his way of doing this was making millions of dollars, purchasing a huge mansion on West Egg, and throwing dazzling parties every week. Fitzgerald withholds most of this information until later on in the novel. The author does this to reinforce the theatrical quality of Gatsby’s life, which is an important part of his personality. Gatsby has literally created his own character, even changing his name from James Gatz to Jay Gatsby to represent his reinvention of himself. As the reader gets further in the novel, Fitzgerald reveals Gatsby’s self-image. Gatsby proves himself to be an innocent, hopeful young man who makes everything dependent on his dreams, not knowing that his dreams are far-fetched and unrealistic. Myrtle Wilson is the character who ties the whole story together in The Great Gatsby. Every character in the novel is connected to her in a significant way. She is secretly with Tom who is with Daisy who is Myrtle’s â€Å"partner in crime† and is also secretly with Gatsby. But out of all these characters, Myrtle is the most important. She is the insecure one, the emotional one and the fake one. Myrtle is always looking for affection. Her insecurity is clear through the decisions that she makes. Her husband, George Wilson, isnt very useful for anything so she turns to Tom for attention. Although Tom is married, he is wealthy and enjoys the company of other women. Myrtle takes advantage of this and keeps Tom under her control. When she leaves the New York train station, she sees an old man selling dogs and she immediately asks him for a police dog. The man tells her that he only has an Airedale and that the coat is water-proof, but she still wants to purchase it. She disregards her reasons for wanting the police dog and only something to cuddle with. Her quick decision-making and easily altered reasoning reflects her insecurity and how she lives her daily life. On another day, Myrtle mistakes Jordan Baker for Toms wife. The more she sees Mrs. Baker the more jealous she becomes. Jordan makes Myrtle realize that there are many women who are prettier than her. As a result, Myrtle believes there is someone else other than Daisy that she has to compete with in order to continue controlling Tom. Myrtle doesn’t use logic to make decisions, due to her opinion being so easily changed on every matter. When she marries Wilson, she knows that she is better than him, but she marries him anyway. Marrying Wilson is a mistake since he is unable to provide for her expensive needs/desires that only Tom can afford. She always regrets marrying Wilson so she runs off with Tom whenever she can. Although marrying Wilson is a serious mistake, she isnt able to learn from this. One night when she is on her way to her sisters, she meets a handsome stranger and falls in love with him at first sight. The stranger is Tom and she only loves him because of his wealth and how far up he is on society’s ladder. Myrtles behavior reflects her decision making abilities and how she is vulnerable to manipulation. Although Tom is brutal and violent, his wealth keeps her content. George really gets the short end of the stick in this novel. Considering hes one of the few characters with redeemable values, he doesnt even deserve it. From what the reader can tell, Wilson is hard-working and not cheating on his spouse. Hes in a marriage with a woman who doesnt love or respect him, who walks all over him like a staircase; and all the while he just does what she says: Oh, sure, agreed Wilson hurriedly (Pg. 26) After Myrtles death, Wilson is in serious emotional pain. He cries out Oh, my God over and over for one of three reasons: because his wife is dead, because he just found out that she was having an affair, or because he feels guilty for making her run out into the street. The other thing that the reader should note about Wilson is that hes the only character who talks about God. He tells Myrtle that she cant fool God, that God sees everything (Pg. 160). By him saying this, the reader is reminded that unlike the rich careless classes, the lower classes cant just run away and hide in their money: they need more to believe in. Wilson and the social class that he is a part of actually have to take responsibility for their actions, and can’t rely on money to get them out of every situation. In conclusion, it is evident to the reader that living in America after the war, times are rough, and the character’s visions are quickly clouded by greed and their egocentric desires, and tragedy strikes when lust and passion collide with sinful desires. Whether they’re killed or affected by the death of a loved one, everyone in this novel is affected by someone else’s selfish actions; by what happens when someone acts with disregard to everyone else’s feelings.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Analyzing Curse Of The Starving Class :: essays research papers

In class we learned about a man named Goethe. He developed a way to critique any category of art, whether it be a poem, oil painting, or a play. According to the World Book Encyclopedia, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832) was a German poet, novelist, and playwright. He ranks among the most important and influential writers of modern European literature. Goethe was also a leading thinker and scientist. The scope and originality of his literary works and the diversity of his intellectual pursuits make him the central figure of German classical and romantic literature. Goethe learned to discipline his passions and he developed a greater balance between emotion and reason.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Now that we have some background on Goethe, we can focus on his questions of analyzing art. These three questions are as follows: (1) What is the artist trying to do?, (2) How well does the artist do it?, and (3) Is it worth doing? The preceding questions could be answered in aim of the painter, actor, director, scene designer, make-up artist, and so on.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In analyzing â€Å"Curse of the Starving Classes† with Goethe’s questions, I will keep my focus on the playwright, Sam Shepard. His is a story that I don’t come across very often. I believe Mr. Shepard wrote this play to bring a variety into the theatre, as well as writing about something he knows and has lived through. Just the fact that this story is his life memory brings feeling and passion to the script. Perhaps I’m digging this too deep, but it is one thing to make up a story, and another to actually have been there. What is the artist trying to do? In my opinion, Shepard is sharing his past, as well as offer a lesson to be learned. This story could bring about different feelings; anywhere from appreciation of what one has to complete and utter boredom. Personally, it helped me realize that my family is important.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  On to the next question, How well does the artist do it? Shepard’s story has drama, with a little side of comedy. Although I feel that the play is a little depressing, my face didn’t show only one emotion. There are, indeed, a few humorous lines here and there in the script. The laughter and the drama make the play a well rounded story in my eyes.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The final question, Is it worth doing?

Saturday, October 12, 2019

The Unscrupulous Iago of Shakespeares Othello Essay -- Othello essays

In William Shakespeare's play, Othello, there is an example of evil personified. He is the character of Iago, and he wreaks havoc and destruction on all those under his influence. As the play develops, we see unfolded a plethora of lies, deceptions and clever schemes. Iago seizes every opportunity to advance his malicious plan to his advantage. Greed and jealousy play a major role as a motive for his various schemes. Iago first reveals his cunning and unscrupulous behavior in his encounter with Rodrigo.   Iago easily controls Rodrigo and he is very aware of his power over him.   He plans to use his influence over him for his own good.   He shows this by saying "Thus do I ever make my fool my purse; For I mine own gained knowledge should profane If I would time expend with such a snipe".   We learn that Iago has a secret hatred for both Othello and Cassio.   Iago says he hates Othello because he has denied Iago a promotion and for Cassio because he now occupies Iago's desired position of lieutenant.   His motive is to seek revenge upon both these characters.   Rodrigo has a shared hatred for Othello for his own and when he suggests he would not serve him, Iago reveilles his scheming plan for Othello by saying to him "O, sir, content you.   I will follow him to serve my turn upon him."   By saying this Iago shows that he plans to cleverly trick Othello of being loyal to him and th en eventually use him for his own ends.   In his first attempt to bring down Othello, he and Rodrigo tell Brabantio that Othello has kidnapped his daughter Desdemona.   This is a dishonorable act as this is definitely a lie and told to Desdemona's father only to anger him towards Othello.   Brabantio is also a senator and has the power to dismiss Othello from hi... ...s. "Two Worldviews Echo Each Other." Readings on The Tragedies. Ed. Clarice Swisher. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1996. Reprint from Shakespeare: The Pattern in His Carpet. N.p.: n.p., 1970. Gardner, Helen. "Othello: A Tragedy of Beauty and Fortune." Readings on The Tragedies. Ed. Clarice Swisher. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1996. Reprint from "The Noble Moor." British Academy Lectures, no. 9, 1955. Shakespeare, William. Othello. In The Electric Shakespeare. Princeton University. 1996. No line nos. Wright, Louis B. and Virginia A. LaMar. "The Engaging Qualities of Othello." Readings on The Tragedies. Ed. Clarice Swisher. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1996. Reprint from Introduction to The Tragedy of Othello, the Moor of Venice by William Shakespeare. N. p.: Simon and Schuster, Inc., 1957.

Friday, October 11, 2019

Comparative Essay between La Goulue & Les Girard

The city of lights was all about fun and the nightlife during the 19th century. Fortunately enough, Jules Cheerer and Henry De Toulouse-Ululate were able to perfectly capture the essence of Parish's blooming nightlife through their posters. Generally speaking, both posters are the same style, however, each artist was able to create different visual effects and atmospheric perspective using their own aesthetic sense. In this situation, both posters are advertising to the viewer the exhilarating nightlife n Parisian cabarets back in the 19th century.Yet, Latter's poster managed to capture a distinctive and sensual atmosphere compared to Cheerer's joyful atmosphere. Louise Weber, the female dancer In Latter's poster, can be seen performing the provocative cancan dance, which exposes her undergarments as she kicks her legs. The audience in the background looks as if they are interacting with the dancer even if they are Just watching her. Meanwhile, the dancers in Cheerer's poster are che erfully dancing with their hands in the air with no audience around.Even though the figures depicted in both posters are 2-dimensional, Latter's poster has more depth because of the way he places his figures through out different layers. The male dancer and the unusual yellow shape on the left dominate the foreground. The main focus of this image is the female figure placed in the center and between the foreground and background. The contrasting silhouettes behind her further highlight the focus on her. The figure in the middle of Cheerer's poster is wearing a vibrant red dress, which easily catches the viewer's eye even though two lively nagging men overlap her.The two male figures are framing the woman in the middle with their legs. The soft, textured, and plain background contrast with the red and black of the flat figures and brings them out. There Is minimal use of shading, but instead, crisp black lines outline the figures, giving the illustration a flat look. Nothing seems to have a definite structure since there is no sense of strong, angular and straight lines but instead, the lines look more organic as seen with the text and figures.This poster might look a bit symmetrical but the artist drew both men who re facing each other with slight differences to add more to the unstructured and organic feel of the Image. One of the main features of Less Gerard is how the text and illustrations can be seen interacting with one another. One figure looks like as if he is standing on the letter G while the other figure has his legs passing through the letter o. The small 3rd figure relationship can be seen between the text and illustrations in the way they were rendered. The have a long pointed form.For example, the tip â€Å"A† in â€Å"Less Gerard mimics the man's foot. The text was customized by the artist hence the similarities between the illustrations and the text. Ululate uses several different fonts in his poster. In this case, Latter's font does n ot interact with the figures in the poster and does not look like it was drawn by hand but instead is placed on top of the figures with low opacity. The other text that is dominating the top part of the poster has more bold colors and is outlined in black, which balances out the heavy image filled bottom part of the poster.Since Ululate was influenced by Cheerer, the similarities in their work. Ululate also chose to work using the same medium, lithography, which is why their work has strong bold colors. There is no doubt that both artists were influenced by the Japanese style, as it is evident in most of their work. The flat planes of color, 2-dimensional figures, and crisp black contour lines are elements from the Kikuyu-e woodblock print style. Latter's composition of figures overlapping each other is also derived from the Japanese art style. On the other hand, the composition in Cheerer's poster is almost symmetrical.This shows us that even though Ululate was influenced by Cheere r, Ululate had a better understanding of Japanese art and was able to fuse that with his own work in order to produce his own style. In conclusion, the posters may seem to be very similar in style; nevertheless, slight differences between those posters do exist and those differences showcase each artist's unique touch. This demonstrates the endless cycle of an artist influencing another artist who in turn modifies and develops what he learned in order to develop his own style and that may even result in a whole new art movement.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Eulogy -Robert Frost

Robert Frost Robert Frost once debated whether the world ended in fire, or ice. It is a sad thought that the world will end without him; that the future generations will be privy to such events made for people like Robert. He was an inspirational, American poet who questioned the very core of our beliefs, he chose paths that few had took, and that is why today he is remembered today. Robert Frost was born in San Francisco on March 26, 1874.His family moved to New England when he was eleven; he became interested in reading and writing poetry during his high school years in Lawrence, Massachusetts. He earned his formal degree at the arguably the most prestigious University, Harvard. He later worked through various occupations, ranging from teacher to editor of the Lawrence Sentinel. His first professional poem, â€Å"My Butterfly†, was published on November 8, 1894, in The Independent newspaper.In a 1970 review of The Poetry of Robert Frost, the poet Daniel Hoffman describes Fro st's early work as â€Å"the Puritan ethic turned astonishingly lyrical and enabled to say out loud the sources of its own delight in the world,† and comments on Frost's career as The American Bard: â€Å"He became a national celebrity, our nearly official Poet Laureate, and a great performer in the tradition of that earlier master of the literary vernacular, Mark Twain. † About Frost, President John F. Kennedy said, â€Å"He has bequeathed his nation a body of imperishable verse from which Americans will forever gain joy and understanding. Though his work is predominantly associated with the life and scenery of New England, and though he was a poet of traditional verse forms and metrics who remained unfalteringly detached from the poetic movements and fashions of his time, Frost is anything but a merely regional or minor poet. The author of searching and often dark meditations on universal themes he is essentially a modern poet who spoke truthfully in all that encomp asses, his work inspired psychological battles inside ourselves, his works were fused with layers of obscurity and irony.Robert Frost lived and taught for many years in Massachusetts and Vermont, and died in Boston on January 29, 1963. Two poems that debatably epitomize what Robert Frost stood for, what he believed in, how he opened the minds of many people to what is; These two poems are ‘fire and ice’, and ‘the road not taken’. The short poem ‘fire and ice’, outlines the familiar question about the destiny of the end of world, wondering if it is more likely to be devastated by fire or ice. People are on both sides of the debate, and Frost introduces the narrator to provide his personal take on the question of the end of the world.The narrator first determines that the world must end in fire after bearing in mind his personal experiences with desire and passion, the emotions of fire. Yet, after considering his experience with â€Å"ice,† or hatred, the narrator acknowledges that ice would be equally destructive. A reading will now be done of the poem: Some say the world will end in fire, Some say in ice. From what I've tasted of desire I hold with those who favor fire. But if it had to perish twice, I think I know enough of hate To say that for destruction ice Is also great And would suffice.Only nine lines, this miniature poem is a vivid example of Frost’s concisely ironic literary style. The poem varies between two meter lengths (either eight syllables or four syllables) and uses three collections of interwoven rhymes, based on â€Å"-ire,† â€Å"-ice,† and â€Å"-ate. † In the first two lines of the poem, Frost creates a clear dichotomy between fire and ice and the two groups of people that believe in each element. By using the term â€Å"some† instead of â€Å"I† or â€Å"an individual,† Frost emphasizes that the distinction between the two elements is a univers al truth, not just an idea promoted by an individual.In addition to the unavoidable contradiction between fire and ice, these first lines also outline the prerogative that the world will end as a direct result of one of these elements. It is made unclear which element will lead to the destruction of the world, but it is noteworthy to know that these are the only two options given. The poem does not allow for any other possibilities in terms of the world’s fate, just as there are not any other opinions allowed in the black-and-white debate between fire and ice.Remarkably, the two prospects for the world’s destruction correspond directly to a common scientific debate during the time Frost wrote the poem. Much like this poem, scientists also debated the eventual end to the Earth, on one side; some believed the Earth will be destroyed by the burning magma core, incinerating the Earth to nothing, while others believed that a new Ice Age would wither all livings things on th e earth’s surface. Instead of preserving a strictly scientific perspective on this debate, Frost introduces a more emotional side, associating passionate desire with fire and hatred with ice.Within this metaphorical view of the two elements, the â€Å"world† can be recognized as a metaphor for and consequently foregrounding to the audience, a relationship. Too much fire and passion can quickly consume a relationship, while cold indifference and hate can be equally destructive Although the first two lines of the poem insist that there can only be a single choice between fire and ice, the narrator further details that a combination or a concurring sequence of both elements would destroy the Earth.Furthermore, the fact that he has had personal experience with both (in the form of desire and hate) reveals that fire and ice are not mutually exclusive, as the first two lines of the poem assert. In fact, though the narrator first concludes that the world will end in fire, he ultimately admits that the world could just as easily end in ice; fire and ice, it seems, are strikingly similar. This further highlights what Frost believes in relationships. That, although a concentration of one emotion, passion or hatred can be destructive he poses that one cannot be without both of them existing.The second poem analysed will be ‘The road not taken’. The narrator comes upon a fork in the road while walking through a yellow wood. He considers both paths and concludes that each one is equally well-travelled and appealing. After choosing a path, the narrator when he will come back to the fork to choose the different path, he later realises this will possibly never happen but that he will only come to new forks (new decisions), his mind then ponders on how different his life would have been if he chose the different path, a reading will now be done.Two roads diverged in a yellow wood, And sorry I could not travel both And be one traveler, long I stood An d looked down one as far as I could To where it bent in the undergrowth; Then took the other, as just as fair, And having perhaps the better claim, Because it was grassy and wanted wear; Though as for that the passing there Had worn them really about the same, And both that morning equally lay In leaves no step had trodden black. Oh, I kept the first for another day! Yet knowing how way leads on to way, I doubted if I should ever come back.I shall be telling this with a sigh Somewhere ages and ages hence: Two roads diverged in a wood, and I— I took the one less travelled by, And that has made all the difference. This poem is made up of four stanzas of five lines, each with a rhyme scheme of ABAAB. This poem is one of Frost’s most adored works and is used many times in English studies. Since its publication, many readers have analysed the poem as a nostalgic observation on life choices. The narrator decided to seize the day and express himself as an individual by choosi ng the road that was â€Å"less travelled by. As a result of this decision, the narrator claims that his life was essentially different, that it would have been had he chosen the well-travelled path. This reading of the poem is tremendously popular because every reader can commiserate with the narrator’s decision: having to choose between two paths without having any knowledge of where each road will lead. Moreover, the narrator’s decision to choose the â€Å"less travelled† path demonstrates his courage. Rather than taking the safe path that others have travelled, the narrator prefers to make his own way in the world.However, when we look closer at the text of the poem, it becomes clear that such an idealistic analysis is largely inaccurate. The narrator only distinguishes the paths from one another after he has already selected one and travelled many years through life. When he first comes upon the fork in the road, the paths are described as being fundamenta lly identical. In terms of beauty, both paths are equally â€Å"fair,† and the overall â€Å"†¦passing there / Had worn them really about the same. † It is only as an old man that the narrator looks back on his life and decides to place such importance on this particular decision in his life.During the first three stanzas, the narrator shows no sense of remorse for his decision nor might any acknowledgement that such a decision be important to his life. Yet, as an old man, the narrator attempts to give a sense of order to his past and perhaps explain why certain things happened to him. Of course, the excuse that he took the road â€Å"less travelled by† is false, but the narrator still clings to this decision as a defining moment of his life, not only because of the path that he chose but because he had to make a choice in the first place.So now, we will remember American poet, Robert Frost for his ingenious input into such universal truths and how such kno wledge can be extracted from his points of view. He is now gone from this Earth, but let us remember him, for his works, for inspiring us to take the road less taken when we come to our own cross roads, to temper our relationships with fire and ice. With these works, dear Robert has left us with enough knowledge and understanding to replace the hole that he has made.

Energy from Peanut and Pea

Energy from Peanut and Pea Shawn lam 28/10/2011 Hypothesis I think that the peanut will release more Energy, as it is has more oil which will generate more energy. While the pea does not have as much oil as the peanut, so the pea will make less energy. Variables Independent variable: Pea, Peanut Dependent variable: Temperature Controlled variable: Beaker volume, Bunsen burner Equipment Beaker, water, Bunsen burner, pea, peanut, thermometer, toothpick (holding food), heat tile, grabber Procedure 1. First get equipment 2. Setup equipment 3.Put water in beaker, then grab with a grabber 4. Burn peanut/ pea with toothpick 5. Put the food under beaker 6. Record Temperature Result Table 1: Looking at the first table, the amount of water added to the beaker was 20ml. There were 4 trials for each food, except for the pea. Type of Food| Heat ( °C)| | Trial| Average| | 1| 2| 3| 4| | Peanut| 20| 35| 50| 59| 41| Pea| 8. 5| 5| 31|   | 14. 83333| Discussion This Experiment wasn’t really successful, as there weren’t 4 trials for the pea. Also some Peanuts/Pea were much bigger than other, next time I will try to choose the sizes more carefully next time.The peanut had a large range of temperature, this tells us either the thermometer is broken or the test was not conducted well. Maybe, the Pea could be changed with another food, as it frequently run out of energy in the middle of a test. Which caused the problem of recording its temprature. Next time maybe there should be better lighter, so that there wouldn’t be a problem with burning the food. There could be less people disturbing experiment, so that more results could be recorded. For example, when people talk, the sound wave blows out the fire. All of this results that the informaion, wasn’t really accurate. ConclusionAs you could see the peanuts average Temperature was higher then the pea, as the pea has less oil then the peanut. The amount of oil on the Peanut is far greater, as resulting m ore energy released from the peanut. While on the other hand, the Pea has less oil which was shown as there was less energy. This shows that the Peanut have at least 3 times more energy then the Pea. Further study Does more oil cause more energy released? â€Å"YES† it does. More oil will help to relese more energy, this is shown as today, many cars rely on oil to run. Bibliography http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Peanut#Peanut_oil http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Pea

Wednesday, October 9, 2019

Socialism Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Socialism - Assignment Example Du Bois’s socialism is fully reflected in his first novel entitled, â€Å"Quest of the Silver Fleece† written on 1911. The novel serves as an antidote for socioeconomic ills experienced in the society. Du Bois explained that his writings aimed to portray the right of black individuals to enjoy and love (as cited in Weinen & Kraft, 2007). Weinen and Kraft (2007) stress the applicability of Du Bois socialism to the period after Soviet Unions collapse and Chinas transformation from socialism to a state capitalism. Du Bois (as cited in Weinan & Kraft, 2007) asserted the need for solidarity and social service for the continuing class divide between Du Bois’s talented tenth descendants and majority of African American in the twenty first century. In addition, Du Bois stressed the need for leaders to critically analyzed social democratic legacy before proposing the global free trade as a means for economic and social developments of different nations worldwide. Lastly, Du Bois (as cited in Weinan & Kraft, 2007) reiterated that global social democracy serves as a means towards attaining

Tuesday, October 8, 2019

Literature review on Customer Loyalty Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Literature review on Customer Loyalty - Essay Example According to Oliver (1999), consumer loyalty and satisfaction are linked because satisfaction is an essential step in the formation of loyalty although it becomes less significant as loyalty undergoes other mechanisms. Oliver (1999) shows that although there are concerns on satisfaction, satisfaction propels loyalty illustrated through evaluation of various factors like social norms and self-identity. The study evaluates the two frameworks and their variability on customer loyalty in order to understand the various factors that influence customer loyalty from the two perspectives. According to Dick and Basu (1994), the core aim of marketing is often perceived in terms of development, maintenance, or even enhancement of customer loyalty toward products or services. In their approach, Dick and Basu consider various concepts regarding customer loyalty like attitude considerations and loyalty based on purchase. Therefore, in their framework, Dick and Basu conceptualize loyalty in terms of relationship between relative attitude targeting an entity and the patronage behaviour. According to Dick and Basu (1994), attitude acts as an appraisal function since it is associated with favourable behaviour even though having a favourable attitude toward a brand does not guarantee multiple purchases of the brand. Nevertheless, Dick and Basu (1994), show that low relative attitude accompanied by low repeat patronage indicates the lack of loyalty. However, relative attitude regarding loyalty suggests the possibility of attaining loyalty at both high and low levels of strength in attitude given that the consumers recognize significant differences among the competing brands. Dick and Basu (1994) indicate cognitive antecedents capable of propelling relative attitude in customer loyalty and they include accessibility, confidence, centrality, and clarity. Accessibility refers to the ease of retrieving

Sunday, October 6, 2019

Language & Levels Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Language & Levels - Assignment Example Additionally, without proper communication, the department will not be motivated to associate themselves in planning the objectives and goals of the organization. The management of communication and human resources are the questioned area when the firm is deficient despite having necessary tools. The second measurement is equipment. If the objectives and goals are well, designed and comprehended by the working team and are well motivated, but the firm is deficient, management need to revise the equipment and tools to see if they are corresponding to the productivity level. Another measurement is teamwork and the values of the organization. If the members of the department do not show a collaborative attitude towards one another, a crucial problem may arise in terms of assessing the interaction between the team members. The measurement used in out department to measure the effectiveness of the company is descriptive data. The goal of descriptive data is to describe. The numerical measures are used in telling the features about a collection of data. Some of the items that belong to descriptive data include average, kurtosis, and skewness. Conversely, in inferential data, there is use of representative subset of the population called the sample. Inferential data researched on the statistical sample (Menzefricke, 2 005). The recommendation for the organization inefficiency posted by one of my classmates is by balancing the internal process value, human relation value, rational goals value, and the open system value. The contextual and structural variables are associated with the above values. Additionally, the concern posted by another classmate on communication measurement, the organization needs to explain the goals of the company to the employs and set the kind of values that are well followed and understood by the employees. I would also suggest the company to

Saturday, October 5, 2019

Julius Caesar and Abraham Lincoln Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Julius Caesar and Abraham Lincoln - Essay Example Apart that the two leaders were well respected in their time and beyond; they also share a similarity in the sense that they were both assassinated. They both lost their parents at very young ages and both left a child behind after their death. This paper will analyze and compare the lives Abraham Lincoln and Julius Cesar. Firstly the creation of America by its forefathers can be likened to the Roman Republic. The American forefathers aimed to create a nation with liberty, life and happiness. The comparison between the two nations dates back to the very beginning with Gorge Washington possessing similar qualities to Lucius Junius Brutus whilst King George portrayed the tyrant role played by King Tarquinius (Wineburg, 488-499). Julius Cesar was assassinated differently to Abraham Lincoln; however, the two events are comparable to certain a extent. One similarity between the two is that they were both assassinated by individuals, who were concerned about their leadership and what they would do with their power. In more simplistic words, the two were just simply killed due to the position they occupied. The two leaders both accumulated a larger following and more power as their term in office grew longer. As Julius Cesar began to implement certain policies, his senators began to feel threatened as they were of the opinion that their positions were under threat. However the difference between Cesar and Lincoln in terms of their attitudes towards power is that Cesar was power hungry and aimed to control as much territory as possible. Whilst in office he extended his term to five years rue in IIIyricum and Cispine Paul. However, Lincoln on the other hand was the exact opposite and did not want to control a larger territory (Wineburg, 488-499). Despite Cesar’s hunger for power, he felt it not for his own benefit but for Rome. Cesar frequently stated that if he was to step down from power, it would lead to a civil war in Rome. Cesar is quoted to have said, †Å"I have long been sated with glory and power, however, it is more important for Rome than myself that I survive. If I was to be removed from my position, Rome will never know any peace. A civil war is likely to break out, one far worse than the last. In essence, Julius Cesar was an advocate for peace, a trait similar to that of Abraham Lincoln. Cesar fought for peace which led him to the accumulation of more enemies and his fight for change is similar to that of Abraham Lincoln. Despite the different positions they occupied, Abraham Lincoln and Julius Cesar were both military men. Lincoln enlisted in the army to be a member of the force fighting the Black Hawk war. While he was enrolled he quickly gained a promotion to the position of Captain for a wing of volunteers. Julius Cesar joined the Roman army with great ambition and quickly rose to the rank of military Commander. Their rise to political power was also different as Lincoln was required to perform a series of debates agains t his opponent. The two were both emulated and respected in their time. Both leaders wanted to make changes in their areas and they both gained enemies in the areas which they implemented their policies. Abraham Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation in the year 1862 (Wineburg, 488-499). This act was intended to free all people and eradicate slavery in the Southern part of the country. Cesar gained enemies from the senate due to his advocation for peace whilst Lincoln was eventually assassinated by John Wilkes Booth, who shouted, â€Å"This is for the South!† before he shot him in the hea (Wineburg, 488-499). In fact, prior to being assassinated the emancipation proclamation led to a civil war in

Friday, October 4, 2019

Employee Relations Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4000 words

Employee Relations - Essay Example In order to support the topic a case study pertaining to the UK retail catering sector has been provided. The report is concluded through personal views and ideas that had been generated during the course of the research. 3 This report is intended to evaluate the extent to which the National Minimum Wage has been successful in bridging the gap between male and female workers in the retail catering sector of the UK. While undertaking extensive literature review and drawing ideas from relevant sources, the report has discussed the employment conditions prevalent in the nation and has also tried to throw light upon the element of equal employment opportunities. It has further analysed the British workforce, and while evaluating the provisions for equitable payment of wages has discussed the role that the National Minimum Wage. In order to support the topic a case study pertaining to the UK retail catering sector has been provided. The report is concluded through personal views and ideas that had been generated during the course of the research. Gender discrimination in workforce in UK has been in existence for many decades. Women workforce was primarily found in low paid, part-time and low status jobs. There were relatively less number of women working in managerial, higher levels of judiciary and politics and senior level jobs. The reason behind such low concentration of women was the fact that women were assumed to have a different role in the society. They are traditionally known to look after the family and rise up the child (Goldsmith & Nickson, 1997). However the numbers has changed drastically in the 21st and more and more women are joining the workforce which is a consequence of an increasing number of women pursuing higher education. In 2005 number of working women in UK was 70%. Work can be categorized as Part time and Full time. Women mainly undertake part time work. In UK the percentage of women and men

Thursday, October 3, 2019

Analysis of Phosphate Essay Example for Free

Analysis of Phosphate Essay The aim of the experiment is to determine the concentration of phosphate ions in unknown samples. A series of dilution of known concentration is performed from the phosphate working solution. Each of the prepared working standards, the unknown samples and the blank are then made to react with a mixed reagent which have been prepared after acid wash of the glasswares Glassware * 2 Beakers * 11 conical flasks * 9 Volumetric flasks 50 ml * 1 Volumetric flasks 1000 ml * Pipette type 1 Pipette 25 ml * Stir rod * 11cuvette * Spectrophotometer Chemical needs; hazards and safety precautions: 1. Sulphuric acid It is very hazardous in case of skin contact. It is classified as corrosive, irritant and permeator. Safety needs: Lab coats,safety goggles and gloves should be worn to minimize risk of contact. In case of: †¢Eye Contact: Check for and remove any contact lenses. In case of contact, immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15minutes. Cold water may be used. Get medical attention immediately. †¢Skin Contact: In case of contact, immediately flush skin with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. Cover the irritated skin with an emollient. Cold water may be used. Wash clothing before reuse. Thoroughly clean shoes before reuse. Get medical attention immediately. †¢Serious Skin Contact: Wash with a disinfectant soap and cover the contaminated skin with an anti-bacterial cream. Seek immediate medical attention. †¢Inhalation: If inhaled, remove to fresh air. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Get medical attention immediately. 2. ammonium heptimolybdate Ammonium heptimolybdate e is harmful if swallowed or inhaled. It causes irritation to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. It affects kidneys and blood Safety measures: Lab coats,safety goggles and gloves should be worn to minimize risk of contact. 3. Potassium antimonyl tartrate Slightly hazardous in case of ingestion. Non-corrosive for skin. Non-sensitizer for skin. 4. Ascorbic acid Slightly hazardous in case of skin contact (irritant), of eye contact (irritant), of ingestion, of inhalation. Safety measures: Lab coats, safety goggles and gloves should be worn to minimize risk of contact. 5. Hydrochloric acid Concentrated hydrochloric acid forms acidic mists. Both the mist and the solution have a corrosive effect on human tissue, with the potential to damage respiratory organs, eyes, skin, and intestines. The HCL should be used in a fume hood and personal protective equipment such as rubber or PVC gloves, protective eye goggles, and chemical-resistant clothing such as lab coats should be used to minimize risk when handling hydrochloric acid. Procedures and calculations. * All of the glassware’s to be used are to be washed with acid (HCL) and then with distilled water. * Nine standards, a blank and 2 random sample are going to be analysed. * Prepare a series of working standards in the range of 10-500 µg NO2-N/L * To 50 cm3 of each working standard and sample add 1. 0 cm3 of sulphanilamide, mix and stand for 2 minutes Calculations 1ml = 0. 5  µg of NO2- 1000 ml of solution contain = 10 ml of NO2- (100  µg) 50 ml of solution contain = 1 ml of NO2- (10  µg) SN| Volume of standardPHOSPHATE solution (s)| Volume ofwater| Concentration| Absorbance| 1. | 1. 0| 49| 10| 0. 003| 2. | 2. 0| 45| 50| 0. 035| 3. | 3. 0| 40| 100| 0. 058| 4. | 4. 0| 35| 150| 0. 074| 5. | 5. 0| 30| 200| 0. 099| Blank| 0| 50| 0| 0. 000| Sample A1| | 0. 022| Sample B1| | 0. 068| Result A Graph of absorbance (OD) against concentration ( µg). Using the equation (y=mx+b) to determine concentration of samples. Let Y equal the concentration. This is what will be solved for. Let X equal the absorbency of the sample. This is the absorbency measured by the spectrophotometer Allow â€Å"to equal the slope and b to equal the y-intercept y= 0. 019 x + 0. 947 Concentration of Sample 1 Absorbance of sample A1 = 0. 022 y= 0. 019 (0. 022) + 0. 947 = 0. 947 Concentration of unknown sample 2 Absorbance of sample B2 = 0. 068 y= 0. 019 (0. 068) + 0. 947 = 0. 948 Discussion The concentration phosphate ion in of samples D and E were determined In this experiment I determined the concentration of phosphate ion in samples D and E. These values were determined by obtaining data from solutions of known concentration. These solutions were placed in the spectrophotometer and then by plotting a graph of absorbance vs. concentration, an equation was produced from which the unknown concentration were determined Conclusion From the result of the experiment, it was determined that the relationship between concentration and absorbance is linear. The amount of light absorbed by a solution varies directly with solute concentration.

Ikea Hotel: Business Environment and Position

Ikea Hotel: Business Environment and Position Xeroderma Pigmentosum (XP): Causes and Treatment Xeroderma Pigmentosum (XP): Causes and Treatment Xeroderma Pigmentosum is a rare autosomal recessive disease affecting about 1 in 250,000 people in Europe which greatly reduces the quality of life of its sufferer. XP patients have a much greater chance of developing skin neoplasms, internal organs neoplasms or even neurological disorder due to a defective Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER) pathway. In this report, I found out that most experts in this field do believe that reactive oxygen species which can cause DNA lesions that can only be repaired by the NER pathway is the main cause of the neurological disorder in XP patients. However, modern technology can not yet prove this is the case. The treatments for XP are mainly preventive rather than interventionist. However, more new treatments have been proved to be effective in helping XP patients with the aid of modern technology. The bacterial enzyme T4 Endonuclease V has recently been put in use for treating XP and gene replacement therapy might be a possible treatment for the futu re. The aim of this article is to gain a general overview of Xeroderma Pigmentosum (XP), to understand the possible causes of neurological disorder in XP patients as well as the current and possible treatments for XP. To achieve my aim, I have first researched using various textbooks to understand DNA repair and damage. After that, I set my focus on Xeroderma Pigmentosum and used two online databases Medline and PubMed to look for review articles on XP in order to have a basic understanding of XP. I used two keywords Xeroderma Pigmentosum and Neoplasm to achieve the goal (Table 1). After having some basic knowledge of XP, I found that the neurodegeneration and the current treatments for XP are quite interesting so I decided to set my aim of these two topics. By searching for Xeroderma Pigmentosum and Neurodegeneration on Medline, I was able to look for some useful articles on my first aim (Table 2). I also searched for Xeroderma Pigmentosum and Gene Therapy for my second aim (Table 3). Cancer which can be considered as an uncontrolled growth and spread of cells is one of the top three causes of mortality in the world.(1) With the WHO predicting that it is going to be the top killer by 2010(2), it is vital for the public and medical professions to understand its aeitiology and pathogenesis in order to fight against it. Generally, the incidence of cancer is increased with aging as the chances of DNA mutation increases with age for lots of different reasons and we now understand that our DNA needs at least 5-6 mutations in order for cancer to develop(3). However, there are some other risk factors which might increase the susceptibility such as smoking, alcohol, radiation and so on. One of the most interesting factors is probably the cancer-prone DNA repair deficiency syndrome, for example Xeroderma Pigmentosum, Cockaynes Syndrome, Werner Syndrome. Patients with these syndromes are characterised by not being able to repair the DNA damage precedes the mutation and thus enhance the chances of getting cancer(4). The aim of this article is to discuss the genetic disorder Xeroderma Pigmentosum (XP). To understand this disorder, we have to first look into the types of DNA damages, their causes and their specific repair mechanism. DNA damage Mutation happens for lots of different reasons. It can occur spontaneously or naturally, for example DNA strand looped out during replication, hence causes a deletion of base. The other main types of spontaneous mutation are Depurination (Fig.1) i.e. detachment of Adenosine or Guanine from its deoxyribose sugar due to the hydrolysis of water and deamination (Fig.2) i.e. oxidation of bases by an oxidising agent e.g. nitrous acid. Spontaneous mutation occurs at a rate varies between and 4ÃÆ'- per gene per generation.(5-7) Another type of mutations could be elicited by the exposure of organisms to substantial mutagens, like chemicals or radiation.(7) The focus of this report is mainly on radiation. Radiation is probably the most well-known type of mutagen and there are three different types of radiation, each of which has its specific effects. The first type is ionising radiation which generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) e.g. H2O2, OHÂÂ · when passing through cells. These oxygen species oxidise DNA bases and thus causes base mispairing. The second type of radiation is the ultraviolet light. It has a wavelength ~ 260nm and is greatly absorbed by the bases. The absorbed energy causes the fusion of adjacent pyrimidine dimers on the same DNA strand and will mainly affect thymine (Fig.3). The results of this type of mutation are stoppage of DNA replication and transcription, which affects the normal function of cells significantly. Ionising radiation such as X-Rays can have a direct effect on DNA strand as well. It reacts directly with deoxyribose backbone and causes double-strand breaks in the DNA and may in turn completely stop DNA replication because of the significant d amage induced.(6-7) The Cell Cycle There are 4 main stages in the cell cycle, G1 (Gap 1), S (Synthesis), G2 (Gap 2) and M (Mitosis) and the duration for each cell cycle is around 24 hours. As from the diagram, each stage has its particular functions. There are two important checkpoints between G1 and S phase and G2 and M phase and they are called G1-to-S checkpoint and G2-to-M checkpoint respectively. These checkpoints are important as they detect the existing DNA damage and generate signals for DNA repair. If the DNA damage is too severe and beyond repair, tumour suppressor like p53 will come into action. This prevents the mutated cell from dividing and developing into cancer cells and the cell either goes into apoptosis or senescence.(5, 7) DNA Repair As previously mentioned, each type of mutation has its own specific repair mechanism and this paper is to focus on nucleotide excision repair (NER) (Fig.5), which is the only relevant mechanism to XP. NER helps repairing pyrimidine dimers and bulky DNA adduct to bases. This repair system works by detecting distortion to the double helix shape of the polynucleotide strand such as thymine-thymine dimers. This distortion triggers a series of events to restore the stability of the DNA. Firstly, XPC is the protein responsible for recognising the distortions. Then XPA and XPD generate a bubble (Fig.5) a ring-like structure formed by unwinds of DNA double-strand around the damaged site. The bubble creates two cleavage sites for ERCC1-XPF (5side) and XPG (3side) to act on. The cleavage sites are exactly 24 nucleotides away from the lesion on the 5side and 5 nucleotides from the 3end. Finally, DNA helicase releases the fragment that has been cut out, and once again DNA polymerases and ligase fill in the gap and repair the lesion. It is important to understand this repair mechanism as several genetic disorders like Xeroderma Pigmentosum, Cockaynes syndrome and trichothiodystrophy are connected with defects in the nucleotide excision repair.(6-7, 12) Brief introduction of XP XP was first described by two dermatologists in Vienna, Ferdinand Ritter von Hebra and Moritz Kapozi in the year 1870. The term xeroderma denotes parchment skin while pigmentosum was added later to indicate and emphasize the characterised pigmentation abnormalities(14-15). At that time, no one knows exactly what causes XP and the link between XP and defective NER was established by Cleaver in 1968(14, 16). Researchers have identified that there are 8 complementation groups of XP and they are XP-A-G and XP variant group. XPA-G are known as the classical forms of XP while the XP-V which is not associated with a defective NER, constituting 20% of the cases of XP. Instead of having a defective NER pathway, XP-V patients have gene coded for a defective form of DNA polymerase, causing a thymine-thymine dimers bypass during replication. Each complementation group represents a mutated form of a specific gene, i.e. complementation group A means the patient has a mutated version of the XP-A ge ne, etc.(14, 17) Patients with XP have a high photosensitivity to UV radiation as their cells have a defective nucleotide excision repair pathway. As a result, those cells exposed to UV radiation will have a high mutation rate and causes a high occurrence of skin cancer as well as affecting ocular tissues. XP can also cause neurodegeneration or neurological diseases and it would be discussed later.(14-15) Prevalence of XP XP is a rare autosomal recessive disease, which means that the disease will only be developed in patients with two mutated form of XP genes, XP will not develop in patients with a normal and a mutated gene as the mutated gene is recessive and wouldnt be expressed but he/she would be a carrier of XP. XP has a dispersed worldwide distribution, varying from 1 in 40,000 in Japan and 1 in 250,000 in Europe and USA. Symptoms of XP can start as early as first exposure to sunlight but the average age of onset of symptoms is around 2 years. There is also a greater than 1000-fold increased risk of skin cancers development connected with XP and the average age of onset of the foremost skin cancer or neoplasm is 8 years, around 50 years earlier comparing with the public. The life spans of XP patients are reduced by around 30 years as many of them die of neoplasia. As mentioned before, NER also removes bulky DNA adduct to bases, such lesions are induced chemically by chemicals like alkylating age nt rather than UV radiation. This explains why XP patients also have a 10 to 20- fold higher risk of forming internal neoplasms below the age of 20.(7, 12, 14, 17) Neurodegeneration of XP It is quite easy and straight forward to understand why XP patients are prone to skin cancers and even internal organs neoplasms. However, there is one interesting clinical feature that is still unexplained and remains puzzling and this is the neurodegeneration of XP patients, which is affecting approximately 20% of the XP patients. Since UV radiation cannot penetrate through our skull, thymine-thymine dimers would not be the type of mutation occurring in the neurological tissues e.g. brain tissues, neurons and so on. Thus, damages in the neurological tissues are more likely to be caused by chemicals like alkylating agents, ROS which damages DNA by oxidising DNA bases or adding bulky adducts to it and are also repaired by the NER pathway(14, 19). The following section will discuss some of the symptoms as well as possible causes of this interesting feature. The first symptom of the XP neurological disorder is reduced tendon reflexes, possibly as a result of peripheral nervous system and ataxia degeneration. With the progression of the disease, the patient will also develop hearing loss and other motor anomalies and become wheelchair bound eventually. Dementia and progressive cognitive decline are also the possible outcomes of the XP neurological disorder.(19) There are several candidates for the causes of neurodegeneration in XP patients but there are yet to be a confirmation of the ultimate cause of those symptoms. ROS is a possible cause for neurodegeneration in XP patients. These species react with our DNA bases or deoxyribose sugar and generate some form of lesions which should be repaired by our NER pathway, for example, hydroxyl radical, a ROS which reacts with deoxyribose sugar and produces a lesion called cyclopurine-deoxynucleosides (Fig.7). This type of lesion can only be repaired by NER and will accumulate in our cells if not repaired.(19) Aldehydes and thymine glycol are some other possible reagents that might cause neurodegeneration in XP patients. Aldehydes react with DNA, forming a DNA lesion called Propano-deoxyguanosine lesion (PdG) which might block transcription by RNA polymerase. Thymine glycol causes oxidative damage to the DNA and produces Nonbulky oxidatively-induced lesion, which could be repaired by the NER pathway as well.(19-20) It is important to understand the fundamental cause of neurodegeneration in XP patients, by doing so; we can develop a possible treatment, not only for reducing the incidences of neurological disorder in XP patients, but for improving the patients quality of life as well. For example if H2O2 is the cause of the neurodegeneration, we can develop a pathway which reduces the level of H2O2 in patients body and reduces the level of H2O2 in their cells.(19) Diagnosis for XP XP can be diagnosed in different ways. Diagnosis can be made clinically by examining eye, skin and nervous system, a detailed family history could also aid in the diagnosis. As XP cells have a defective NER, a functional test for DNA repair on living cells may also be used for diagnosis. Nowadays, genetic testing of XPA and XPC genes is available clinically but the testing for the other genes is only available on a research basis.(21) Treatment for XP At the moment, there is no cure for XP. Primary care for XP is probably more important than secondary care in terms of prevention and regulation of the disease. Once the patient is diagnosed with XP, he/she should avoid exposure to sunlight and other mutagens like cigarette smoke or alcohol immediately. XP patients should also wear protective clothing like UV suits, sunglasses and gloves in order to get minimum exposure to UV radiation, reducing the chances of getting further DNA damage. UV radiation levels should also be measured routinely at in-door environment for safety reasons. XP patients should also consume sufficient vitamin D in their diet to compensate for the insufficient production of vitamin D by their body.(21) As the disease progresses, XP patients might develop small lesions in the skin which could be treated using liquid nitrogen or topical 5-fluorouracil. Skin cancers, neoplasms of the eyelids, conjunctiva and cornea developed could be removed surgically. In patients with multiple skin cancers, high-dose oral isotretinoin may be used to prevent the formation of new neoplasms. X-radiation therapy can also be used to treat cancer with close monitoring as most XP patients are not hypersensitive to therapeutic X-rays.(21) Gene replacement therapy, i.e. replacing the mutated gene by insertion of a normal set of gene might also be a possible treatment in the future but very few research groups are working on that(22). In 2001, a study showed that the insertion of the bacterial DNA repair enzyme T4 Endonuclease V (also known as denV T4 endonuclease, an enzyme which removes the glycosyl bond of the pyrimidine dimer(23)) in liposomes into XP patients can actually increases the rate of repair of UV induced lesion, lowering the chances of new skin neoplasms development and it is now one of the treatments of XP. (21, 24) A research on gene replacement therapy published in 2003 was supportive for the XP patients(25). The result was quite promising as the researchers successfully restore the DNA repair capacity of XP cells after the insertion of gene(25). Although the efficacy of the treatment is high, its reliability is relatively low and there are definitely some limitations in the study. Firstly, it was an in vitro experiment; results shown in test tube would not be necessarily the same as in mammals or humans. Secondly, the research only focused on the XP-C cells so it is still unsure whether gene replacement therapy would work on other XP genes. Thirdly, the research was only done on cells from 2 patients; a larger sample size, preferably samples from different ethnicity or a more comprehensive study is needed to confirm the effectiveness in clinical practice. The bacterial enzyme T4 Endonuclease V was proved to be a quite effective treatment for XP as mentioned previously. The study that I looked into was a randomised study and involves 30 patients, with 20 in the intervention group and 10 in the placebo group(24). Overall, the study is quite reliable as it was a randomised double-blind study which minimise the bias that might affect the final outcomes of the study. However, some issues do present in the trial and should be addressed for future research. Firstly, the sample size is relatively small; a larger sample size is needed to confirm the effectiveness of the bacterial enzyme. Secondly, the ratio of patients in the two study groups varies, which might affect the statistical outcome significantly, especially for a small-sized study. Conclusions, limitations and further study To conclude, with the progression of technology and more time and resources spent on XP, we have now got much more understanding of XP, comparing with the first discovery of the disease. However, we shouldnt be satisfied with it and stop here as there is still a long way to go to get a full understanding of this genetic disorder. From my research, I found out that majority of the researchers favour ROS as the underlying cause of the neurodegeneration in XP patients. Firstly, our nervous system has a high demand for oxygen and ROS produced during respiration could potentially accumulate in our nervous system, causing damages to our DNA. Secondly, ROS causes DNA lesion that might only be repaired by the NER pathway. Thirdly, ROS can generate lesions that could block the RNA transcription, contributing to the loss of proteins and eventually cell death(19). All of these evidences suggested that ROS are possible causes of the neurological disorder in XP. At the moment, the resources are not available to prove that it is the case and there might be some other DNA damages that cause neurodegeneration which have not been discovered yet. However, I am sure with all the hard-work, and the advancement of technology, this mystery would soon be solved. In my opinion, with the lack of treatment for XP at the moment, preventive measures would be the most important things. As a result, diagnosis of XP should be made as quickly as possible. Genetic screening for new born baby might be a method for early diagnosis of XP. However, XP is a rare genetic disorder which is not so cost-effective for genetic testing as it is still relatively costly to diagnose XP in a molecular level and we should probably look for a cheaper alternatives and an easier way for diagnosis of XP. As for the future treatment, as I have previously mentioned, understanding the underlying cause of neurodegeneration is important for reducing the incidences of neurological disorder in XP patients and would improve the patients quality of life. My opinion on gene replacement therapy is that it is viable as the technology is available but not practical yet. First of all, although our skins are quite easy to reach, we should bear in mind that the skin has got a large surface area and would be quite difficult to insert replacement genes into the majority of the skin cells. We have now developed a method of inserting genes by genetically modified retrovirus, which could deliver genes into our cells quite easily. However, the technology for this is still premature and it is quite hard to monitor the viruses and might generate side effects like escape of viruses to the nature, mutation of the viruses and so on. I think that the information on gene replacement therapy for XP patients is qu ite limited; a lot more need to be done to address this issue. Finally, I do believe that with the advance of technology and as our knowledge of gene therapy progresses, a cure for XP should soon be found.